Pages: 1 2

General cooling

One of the diagnostic features of death from cooling are bleeding in the stomach lining. They were first noted in 1895 doctor S. M. Vishnevsky, from which it received the name "spots Vishnevsky". They are usually localized in the most upper folds of mucous membrane, can be easily removed when stroking the back of a knife or from the action of the weak water jets, have rounded or linear-winding shape, stains can be dot or amount to 0.5 X 0.5 cm, they brownish colour with a reddish shade. Bleeding from single to multiple grouped along the blood vessels. According to various authors, spots Vishnevsky occur in 75-90 % of the victims from the cooling (Fig. 87).

spot Vishnevsky
Fig. 87. Spot Vishnevsky.

In terms of the mechanism of spots Vishnevsky it is considered that as a result of the cold effect on the Central nervous system violated the regulation of trophic function of the autonomic nervous system, in particular the solar plexus. This leads to vasomotor disorders in the gastrointestinal tract, increased permeability of vascular walls of the gastric mucosa with subsequent diapedesis erythrocytes. Under the influence of hydrochloric acid gastric juice red blood cells are destroyed, this forms hydrochloric gelatin, giving the spots Vishnevsky brownish color.
Spot Vishnevsky may be missing, for example, when cooling is fast. As a rule, they are not observed in the study of the dead bodies of the children who died from cooling. In the study of the corpse not find any specific cooling morphological features. In direct tubules of the kidney are found proliferative-necrotic changes epithelium, in the mucosa of the pelvis find petechial hemorrhages bright red color.
You can watch the swelling of the Pia mater, sharp plethora of vessels of internal organs. In fatal hypothermia blood saturated with oxygen, Alai in the pulmonary vessels, lighter color in the left half of the heart, blood pinkish convolution of fibrin. Upon the occurrence of death from cooling noted overflow bladder urine due to breach its innervation.
Teratogenic at action of low temperatures associated with abrupt overvoltage compensatory functions, and especially increasing the heat production, which leads to significant energy costs, particularly in increased consumption of carbohydrates. In this regard, in histochemical study show the complete disappearance of glycogen from the liver, pancreas, brain and muscles of the heart, lipids from the cells of the adrenal cortex that has diagnostic value. Upon the occurrence of death from a very severe cooling is reduced, as a rule, the activity of oxidative enzymes. However, it should be borne in mind that at death from fast cooling due to the combined effects of ice water, cold air and strong wind, and also with a short exposition of refrigeration (1,5-3,5 h) noted the paradoxical condition in which, along with the disappearance of sugar from the blood into the liver is found significant amount of glycogen. Research shows that growing faster than cooling, the more reserve carbohydrates are delayed in the liver.
At long stay of a corpse in low temperatures (below 0 C) comes the freezing of tissues. It is sometimes superficial and complete. The glaciation of the tissues of the brain in some cases, leads to increase of the volume of the brain and subsequent cracking bones of the skull and dehiscence. When cracked skull bones can occur posthumous breaks, the skin of which is impregnated emulsionnoj blood that mistake can be made for the lifetime traumatic brain injury. The divergence of seams of the skull and even broken bones of the cranial vault due to glaciation of the brain occur in cases when first freeze organs and tissues of the neck (for example, on the head of the deceased has a headdress, and the neck was not protected from exposure to the cold). In other cases, there is a "scheduling" oledeneniya brain in great foramen (if not headdress, and the neck scarf wrapped), while the divergence of seams not see.
Defrosting Ledeneva corpses should be slow at normal room temperature. The thawing of the corpse occurs hemolysis of blood, and its degree depends on the speed of thawing. If it occurs at a very high temperature, the posthumous changes from impregnation of fabrics emulsionnoj blood will be significant.
Microscopic examination of the bodies subjected to congelation, detect cracks and holes, the formation of which is associated with the mechanical action of the ice. Who died as a result of prolonged action cold cells and tissues to their warming have no signs of necrosis, which can be identifies modern morphological methods of research.
Remember that a person's death comes from hypothermia body. Freezing (glaciation) can be a corpse regardless of the cause of death.
In cases of death from hypothermia in a state of pronounced intoxication in forensic chemical examination in the blood can find very low alcohol content (or do not find), while in the urine ethyl alcohol is logged in significant quantities. This phenomenon is connected with the utilization of alcohol in the body's process of hypothermia.