Examination of a patient

Examination of a patient - a complex of medical studies, which reveal the General and local disease signs and evaluate the General condition of the patient. Complete the survey allows the patient to establish not only the nature and localization of pathological process, i.e. the diagnosis (see), but to judge about the individual peculiarities of development of disease in the patient, to foresee the future for him and probable outcome (see Outlook). Based on the results of examination of the patient choose the most suitable tactics and technique of treatment by defining indications and contraindications to the different treatment interventions.
All these issues are addressed through the analysis and generalization of factual data. Medical thinking is necessary for logical processing of the results of the examination of the patient, confined mostly to the fact that no one noticed phenomenon or modifications not leave without question "why?" and no one's own actions at the bedside without question "why?".

Examination of the patient - the combination of different methods used for evaluation of the patient, diagnosis, determine prognosis, destination informed treatment and prevention.
Methods of patient examination is divided into common, used in the study of any patient, and special applied when indicated. Common methods of patient examination is divided into basic and additional.
The main methods of patient examination - an interrogation, inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation of the patient. These methods appeared first in medical practice, their use requires no complex equipment and possible in any situation.
1. Anamnesis begin with the identification of the "passport" data, helping to suspect or exclude diseases peculiar to a particular age, sex, profession, area, which is home sick. Then investigate complaints of the patient, which to some extent can Orient inquirer regarding diseases of the organ. Then we proceed to the gathering of medical history (see).
2. Inspection is often precedes the interrogation, as pathological signs marked with the first communication with patients, such as goiter, exophthalmos, and others, have significant support in the formulation of issues during the collection of anamnesis and sometimes allow you to set the correct diagnosis "at first sight".
The examination can reveal some of the common signs of the disorder different functions of the organism (e.g., shortness of breath, edema) and anatomical changes in organs. Known combinations of these parameters are specific clinical syndrome (see), typical of those or other diseases.
Inspection is best done in daylight or fluorescent lamps, which allows to detect, for example, yellowish coloration of the skin and eyes, or the existence of different skin rash that is not detected in the presence of other artificial light sources. Applying gradual partial exposure of the body, we must thoroughly examine the patient in vertical and horizontal position with direct and side lighting. The examination should be systematic. First make a General inspection of the patient, and then the local inspection body parts, organs.
In General examination, the doctor or nurse after clarification of passport data (gender, age and other) sets the Constitution (see), the General condition of the patient (gait, posture, situation, consciousness), it habitus (obesity, weight loss), and also conducts an external examination of the lymph nodes, skin, mucous membranes, hair, head, face, neck, trunk (chest, abdomen), limbs and genitals.
When assessing the General state of the patient mark whether the patient to move independently or forced to lie. The mobility of the patient does not yet specify the ease of pathological process. At a walking sick pay attention to your posture and gait. The posture of the patient in many cases it is possible to make a conclusion about the General tone, the development of muscles, about the state of the psyche, the presence of the disease.
Gait patient with posture reflects his health, mood. A number of diseases causes a change of gait (sciatica, lesions of the joints, bones, blood circulation in the lower extremities and other).
The position of the patient in bed can be active, passive and forced. Active position usually corresponds to a satisfactory condition, but it can be in the early stages even incurable, severe diseases. Passive provision occurs in cases of extreme weakness and loss of consciousness. Forced position can be quite varied; the patient takes it to reduce its existing pain (when dry pleurisy lies on the patient side bends the finiteness of arthritis and so on), asthma, lung edema takes poluciaetsea or sitting position, and so on

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