Shoes

Hygienic purpose shoes is to protect human feet from cold and moisture, mechanical impacts and pollution. On purpose shoes are distinguished: 1) domestic, protective, sports, orthopedic; 2) the children's, women's, men's. Shoes in shape and size should correspond to the foot. Compression foot shoes breaks in her blood and lymph circulation. Wearing tight shoes changes the shape of the foot, the violation of its mobility, rapid cooling fingers into the cold, wet weather, with their possible frostbite. In children tight shoes interferes with the normal growth and development of the foot. Close or very loose shoes may promote the formation of wear and calluses. Should oppose shoes at very high heels. Wearing such shoes in adolescence, when not over the ossification of the skeleton and ligaments are not strengthened, is unacceptable. The area of a support of high-heeled shoes significantly lower than low, so it can be povertyline foot sprain of ligaments, and sometimes a sprained ankle. High heel not softens the blow, therefore, when running, jumping tremors through the spine are passed in the head, which can cause headache and neuralgia. The most comfortable shoes, from the hygienic point of view, wide heels of moderate height-for men 2-3 cm, women 2-4 cm, children of preschool and younger school age 1-2 cm, school age 2-3 cm (to avoid flat feet).
Insole shoes should fit the shape of the foot. The sole should be flexible, solid backdrop. The toes should be placed freely, without pressure. Socks should match the form of the fingers. Narrow toe is valid only in unepetitevoix of the Shoe. Shoes must be sufficiently ventilated, soft, elastic, easy, do not change the shape, size, flexibility after moistening and drying. Teplonositel and vodovorot must comply with the conditions of socks. The best hygienic requirements is leather shoes with leather soles. It is quite durable, breathable, and plastic. For cold climates necessary insulated footwear with good heat-shielding properties. The material for such shoes are wool, natural and artificial fur, some synthetic materials. In summer shoes must be provided with sufficient air exchange, therefore, recommended for summer shoes corresponding construction (sandals and so on). Rubber shoes or shoes with rubber soles can be recommended for use only in rainy weather, as footwear short-term wearing. When wearing rubber shoes should use felt insoles and woolen socks. Currently, the industry produces a large number of skin substitutes that's manual surpass natural skin, but for a number of hygienic indicators (capacity, propovedniki and others) yield to it.

Shoes must support depreciation and spring stop function, to match the anatomic and physiological features of the foot, conditions of work and life, the season and climate, to be comfortable to wear, not to interfere with the natural development of the legs. This is of particular importance in childhood and adolescence. Wearing Acting irrationally may lead to violation of the functions of the arches of the foot (longitudinal and cross-section, Fig. 1) and to the development of flatfoot (see).
Shoes should not press on foot, as it violates the blood and lymph circulation. Fingers in Acting must be completely free (thumb the required allowance from the inner side of the sock 10-15 mm). The use of the narrow O. may lead to change in the shape of the foot (Fig. 2) - to the rejection of the first finger outwards (hallux valgus), and the fourth and fifth fingers inwards, to the limitation and loss of joint mobility and other Violations of blood and lymph circulation can cause swelling. Winter in such shoes because of their rapid cooling possible freezing toes. On the other hand, wearing overly loose O. promotes the formation of wear and calluses.

Fig. 1. The arches of the foot: 1 - internal longitudinal; 2 - cross - front and rear.
Fig. 2. The skeleton of the distal part of the foot: 1 - normal, 2 - a-edited wearing tight shoes.

Use shoes with very high heels reduces the calf muscle and relaxation of the front leg muscles and ligaments of the foot. At that, the center of gravity is transferred forward while moving support torso bent toes and heel that leads to instability of the body: in Acting in high heels footprint by 30-40% less than in Acting with low heels, and the area of high heels in 7-8 times lower than low. The consequence of this may be povertyline foot sprain, and sometimes a sprained ankle.
Wearing shoes with high heels, especially girls and young women, causes curvature of the spine, changing the shape of the pelvis, the displacement of the internal organs and pain. Wide heel of moderate height increases amortisation impact of walking, running and reported greater stability body. The heel should be raised on 1/14 length of the foot, upon the basis of muscle balance flexors and extensors of the foot fitted with plantar flexion of the foot angle of 127 degrees (R. R. Harmful). The most acceptable heel height Acting for men 2-3 cm for women 2-4 cm, for children of primary school age 1-2 cm school age, 2-3 cm and girls of 15-17 years, not more than 3-4 see the Shoes must have a flexible, bendable sole and solid backdrop. Sock width must correspond to the width of the Shoe. Sharp and narrow shape of the toe may be allowed only in unepetitevoix of the Shoe.
For cold and temperate climate in winter it is recommended Acting with sufficient heat-shielding properties: wool, fur, faux fur with synthetic fibers (polyester, polyester with the addition of wool, orlon, Dinel, betrayed)and polyurethane foam, reindeer kamus and others In the hot and temperate regions for summer shoes must meet the following requirements: it must be provided with sufficient air exchange and the complete removal of sweat and moisture due to good capacity, rapid evaporation sufficient air and vapour permeability footwear materials appropriate to the design of O. an Important requirement of Acting in areas wet hot climate, in crude and marshy areas is vodovorot.
Genuine leather meet hygienic requirements to the materials of heading O. manufacture of Artificial materials used for the top O. (PVC, polyamide, synthetic insulation - fur and so on), and bottom (microporous soles, rubber leather imitation, transparentne rubber and others), operational properties surpass natural skin, but is hygienically a number of indicators yield to it (by capacity, breathability and others). All kinds of shoes with rubber soles, including microporous, you can wear mostly only in wet weather.
Children of preschool and school age is not recommended to use short Acting, as it causes fatigue and leads to deformation of the toes (corns, hammer toes), and Acting with an open heel, the wearing of which is accompanied by instability when walking. When wearing rubber Acting, especially in rural areas, one should use felt insoles and woolen socks. Girls older, and those weak, suffering from rheumatism, neuritis, and especially in skin diseases is not recommended to wear nylon stockings and socks.