A General overview of the human body (9 lessons)

The theme of the "General overview of the human body" begins the study of anatomy, physiology and hygiene of man. In teaching this topic resolved the following educational objectives: the generalization of students ' knowledge obtained during the course of botany and Zoology, the structure and functions of Living organisms, on the chemical composition of their body, about the structure of plant and animal cells; obtaining specific ideas about the human organs, tissues, cells and noncellular the substance of which they consist, on the structure of the cells of the body. On this basis, the students formed the concept of the integrity of the human organism, about the unity of structure and composition of all living things, about the similarities and differences between humans and other mammals.
In the study of the topic students first become acquainted with some histological, anatomical, physiological and chemical concepts, such as surface membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, cellular center, chromosomes, amino acids, nucleic acids, non-cellular substance, fabrics (epithelium, connective, muscle and nerve), neuron, nerve fiber, anxiety, contractility, conductivity, Central and peripheral nervous system, gray and white matter, centripetal and centrifugal nerves, receptors, reflex arc, braking.
The content of the subject "General overview of the human body requires the application of various methods and instructional techniques. Conversation and teacher's story alternate with laboratory works, demonstration experiments on frogs, tables and movies.
Necessary equipment for the whole course, and for this topic is a series of tables A. N. Kabanova and C. A. Belyaeva on anatomy, physiology and hygiene of man, makeshift Tables, made by students: "structure of the cells under the electronic microscope", "DNA" (General and detailed), "the Chromosomes of man", "the Scheme indirect cell division".
The lesson Properties muscle and nervous tissue is required to prepare frogs, from the calculation of b per class. Keep them have long, but necessarily in a cool place (in the basement, in the refrigerator). The lesson "Reflex" you must have 1-2 frogs on the class.
At the lessons on the topic can show movies: "the Cell structure of living organisms", "Fabric animal organisms", "Physiological properties of muscle and nervous tissue". In addition, it is good to apply dumb card-scheme size 15x20 sm on the structure of the cells, indirect cell division and other manufactured students. If a school 2-3 parallel, making it possible to alternate. To apply them in every class, only labels in them must be executed by a pencil. These mute card-scheme can serve several years as a handout. You can use the study guide N. I. Matveeva "Independent work of students on anatomy, physiology and hygiene of man". M., "Enlightenment", 1966.

preparation of the hind legs of frogs for laboratory classes
Fig. 1. Preparation of the hind legs of frogs for laboratory classes

Guidelines for the preparation of drugs

Preparation isolated hind legs of frogs. Frog decapitate (Fig. 1), leaving the lower jaw, cut almost in half, remove the skin e hind legs (as stocking and cut them one by one for distribution to the tables. To demonstrate the properties of nerve, besides all this, carefully separated from the surrounding tissues, the nerve that runs to the muscles of the legs. Foot attached to vertically installed the plate. The end of the nerve placed on hooks (Fig. 2).


Fig. 2. Installation to demonstrate properties of nerve on the leg of a frog

Preparation of spinal frogs. A frog is wrapped in a cloth, leaving a free head. Scissors cut off the head. The boundary of the section can serve as eardrum (lower edge). First, the frog comes the shock, she lay absolutely motionless, and then, if properly made the cut, it can be observed flexion reflex. If the frog will produce a variety of chaotic motion, needs to be slightly destroy the medulla. With one of the legs on the skin. Then hung a frog on a tripod behind the jaw.