Hearth endemic

Hearth endemic (gr. endemos - local) - a term used to denote areas where certain infectious diseases for a long time are logged with more or less consistency. Under the endemic understand constant (for many years) presence of infectious diseases in the area due to natural factors.
Distinguish between the true and the so-called statistical endemicity areas. About the true endemicity say in those cases where the incidence is fixed in a particular area of their biological linkages - the distribution area of the source or carrier of infection or optimal conditions for the development of the pathogen outside the organism of warm-blooded animals. For example, the area where there are favorable natural conditions for the existence of a mosquito species Anopheles and for the development of the parasite malaria in the body of the mosquito, in the presence of malaria patients of people can be considered as truly endemic malaria. Endemic foci called areas where common hookworm, the schistosomiasis and other
In endemic foci include the areas of distribution enzootic natural diseases of wild animals, in case these diseases strike and the local population. Among these diseases - plague, tularemia, taiga and Japanese the encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, a mosquito fever, leishmaniasis, tick-borne relapsing fever, yellow fever and other
In some areas permanently registered some endemic diseases noncommunicable - goiter, fluorosis, oravska disease. These diseases are associated with specific natural features of the terrain: the deficit of iodine in soil, water, plants (endemic goitre); excess compounds of fluorine in soils, water, food (fluorosis); the lack of microelements in water, soil, plants and other (urovski disease). About the so-called statistical endemicity areas they say in those cases when there for a long time recorded increased incidence of measles, diphtheria, dysentery and other widely spread infectious diseases. Unlike other areas in these areas remains steadily high morbidity. Such diseases are not associated with this area any natural conditions, their distribution is caused by domestic factors, public health and social order, including the level of health care of the population. Consequently, these areas cannot be considered truly endemic.
The conditions that determine the true endemicity areas, in many cases, can be changed aimed economic measures, leading to the breakdown of natural biological ties and rehabilitation of areas, as well as the system of special health interventions. Cm. also Natural focality.