The focus of epidemic

The focus of the epidemic - the residence of the source of the infection (ill person, bacteriological, animal-media) with its surrounding territory to the extent that it is able in this particular situation when the infection to transmit infectious beginning of others. The spatial extent of the hearth, its borders are defined by the character of infectious diseases, conditions, social environment, for many infections - natural conditions and so on, So, for typhus epidemic focus will be the place where the patient is the only source of infection, persons who come into contact with patients, things that can be contracted from a sick head lice. The borders of such a focus could be limited to a single apartment, barracks, a hostel, and go beyond the locality, to cover the area, area. Epidemic hearth when the plague is not only a patient who come into contact with him, and possibly infected objects, but the land on which animals guardian plague infection (squirrels, marmots, rodents, and so on) and the vectors of plague fleas.
In the concept of the epidemic focus can enter only one patient (for example, measles) and the territory, which can spread contagious beginning. This is usually apartment, kindergarten, school. But the focus can be quite long, with many patients and bakterionositelej (spread cholera, smallpox and other).
Epidemic hearth shall be considered liquidated, when neutralized the source of infection (hospitalization); surrounding checked for carriage and free from it; in the hearth of the activities conducted for the destruction of the pathogen or vectors (disinfection, disinsection); when the case reached the maximum incubation period when the disease and the contact person is not ill (see also the Focus of endemic).

Epidemic hearth. Mean by the term phenomenon can be properly called "hotbed of infectious disease" (L. Century Gromashevskyy). The term "epidemic hearth" is not specific enough, which leads to various interpretations. Every hearth contagious disease is a link of the epidemic process.
The conditions of existence of the hearth contagious diseases are: a) the presence in a particular place, family apartment, house, hostel etc) source of the infection (ill, HIV-positive); b) the conditions for further transmission. The territory of the possible spread of infection from the hearth of contagious disease may be of different length, due to the nature of the mechanism of transmission through each disease, as well as with age, household, professional, social and other peculiarities of people, where there was a hotbed of contagious disease. Under the conditions, which determine the high intensity of transmission, distribution territory of infection from this focus can be significant. Part inspired arthropods in transmission determines the possibility of the spread of infection from the hearth on a vast territory.
Under certain conditions - delayed detection of fire, incorrect diagnosis of the disease, the lack of anti-epidemic measures in the focus may appear again and even multiple disease. Multiple diseases in the source may also arise while infecting people from the common source of infection.
The focus of contagious disease exists within the time period defined by the features of the disease and the time required for the necessary anti-epidemic measures. The focus of contagious disease can be liquidated, if the source of infection neutralized (hospitalization), when all the surrounding of the patient (the carrier of infection) tested for carriage and free from it; when in the hearth of the activities conducted for the destruction of the pathogen of a disease or infection carriers arthropods (disinfection, disinsection, if necessary sanitary treatment) and their effectiveness monitored; finally, when will expire the maximum incubation period for this disease and all around the patient will remain healthy.
Hearth ceases to exist usually due to the epidemic measures, significantly less likely to have the attenuation of focus due to other reasons, of which the main is the inability of transmission.
Identification of the concepts of "epidemic hearth" and "infectious hearth" (the source of infection) incorrectly. Under the focus of infection is understood as local manifestations of infection in the body of man or animal.