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The focus of mass lesions

The focus of mass lesions - the territory on which the result of the impact of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical) there is a mass destruction of people, damage and destruction of civil, industrial and defensive structures (objects), damage and destruction of different material values.
Centers of mass lesions can occur in the inner region of the country and on the battlefield. Depending on the type applied by the enemy of weapons of mass destruction and conditions of situation centers have their own characteristics. However, they are characterized by a common features: the mass scale of losses and their appearance in relatively short periods of time (sometimes simultaneously); large area; full (in some cases) or partial loss of working capacity of forces and means of the medical service of troops (forces medical service TH) and institutions of the health authorities. In the inner region of a country the size of hearth of mass defeat and, consequently, the amount of losses in him fluctuate widely and are determined mainly by the type of weapon and method of use, power, and number of applied ammunition, population density (troops) and the degree of its protection, the nature of the terrain and meteorological conditions, and other factors. The focus of mass lesions can have a footprint of individual industrial and other large-scale economic and military objects. For example, the area of the lesion atomic bombs medium caliber applied USA in 1945 on the Japanese cities, was in Hiroshima over 24 and Nagasaki - 18 km2, the number of victims respectively 136 and 64 thousand people.
The degree of loss of working capacity of medical staff, medical and other healthcare institutions can also be significant. In Hiroshima 90% of doctors were killed or wounded; from 45 hospitals only 3 could take amazed and provide them with medical assistance. The area of the foci of infection poisonous substances and the amount of losses in them can be quite large.
Configuration focus is mainly determined by the weapon and how it is used, the nature of the terrain and vegetation, meteorological and other conditions. Form hearth of mass defeat, air nuclear explosions usually closer to a circle with uneven edges, depending on the terrain and vegetation cover, character development of the locality and other factors (the radius of the damaging effect of increases along ravines, wide streets, in the districts with low wooden buildings in the direction of the wind and less towards forests, hills, blocks of building tall buildings and so on). When terrestrial nuclear explosion, it also creates a cigar-shaped strip of contamination PB in the area adjacent to the center of the explosion, and the wind (track radioactive cloud). The radiation levels in the area of explosion and radioactive clouds (see Nuclear weapons) can reach a high level, particularly in the vicinity of the explosion site and on the axis of the track. With increasing distance from the place of explosion and to the periphery of the axis of the track this level is gradually decreasing (see Fig. 2 tbsp. Nuclear weapons).
In the focus of mass lesions of nuclear weapons possible extensive destruction of ground to the underground structures, formation of debris and fires. Last, merging, form of fire storms (in Hiroshima area of fires was 11.5 km2, i.e. almost half of the total area of the hearth).
The lesion in the hearth decreases with distance from the epicenter in all directions. There are three zones: adjacent to the epicenter zone full destruction of buildings and other structures (the basement of the buildings can be preserved), death and extremely heavy defeats of people; the zone of high damage to buildings and heavy and moderate lesions people; the zone of low damage of buildings (mainly window frames, doors, interior walls, roof) and light and less moderate lesions people.
The majority of victims in the focus of mass lesions of nuclear weapons will be combined lesions of the shock wave and light radiation, and sometimes penetrating radiation. Isolated injuries, burns and radiation injuries are more rare. On the trail of radioactive clouds may damage people with ionizing radiation.