Cleaning of populated areas

Cleaning of populated areas - collection activities, removal, neutralization and recycling of waste. In the process of human activity produces a great amount of various waste: solid and liquid allocation of people and animals, cooking and household water and debris, bath and Laundry, industrial water, dust and under the debris from the streets and yards, waste medical and veterinary institutions, etc.
Scavenge is a large number of microorganisms, as well as the eggs of worms and flies. In large accumulations of garbage can settle rodents. Industrial wastes are toxic and radioactive substances. When bad, untimely cleaning of waste pollute and contaminate air, water, soil, vegetation, dwellings and public buildings, sharply worsening sanitary condition of populated places. Waste and sewage, pollution of water and soil, can cause infectious diseases. Therefore hygienic cleaning of populated areas is very high. Industrial and radioactive waste is isolated from the General system and clearing them is carried out by the industrial enterprises (see Radioactive wastes, Sanitary protection of atmospheric air, Waste water). Collection and removal of garbage from households is carried out by bodies and public utilities of the Council of people's deputies or industrial enterprises, collective and state farms. There are three types of planning and regular cleaning.
1. Container - when the garbage is taken together with domestic waste bin (container) special machines, and in its place put an empty container.
2. Draught - when garbage collection is performed in special metal containers, out of which poured into the car. This system is less than perfect in sanitary condition.
3. The waste is collected directly into the machine from buckets, installed in apartments (bypassing yard waste route), at exactly the time of the signal of the driver. This system can be recommended in small towns and villages, have enough transport for trash removal.
Garbage collection is done in places of its formation in containers with tight lids and easy to clean, designed for one-patiserie accumulation of garbage. Set trash cans on a specially equipped betoniranim or asphalted sites, no closer than 20 meters and not more than 100 m from the Windows of residential premises, dyplomatic and places of rest of workers. Waste has to be delivered not less than once in three days, food waste every day. Waste disposal is carried out by special transport, the horse or car (garbage trucks or containers). The calculation of the number of transport for removal of debris and waste route calculation is made according to the accumulation of garbage. On average per inhabitant per year is calculated 0,5 m3 solid waste.
The clearance and disposal of waste is bio-thermal method where is the decay of organic substances, formed humus fertilizer, killing pathogenic microbes and eggs of helminths.
Bio-thermal methods of waste disposal meet sanitary, epidemiological and economic requirements. Waste incineration as a method of waste disposal less efficient, is seldom applied. It should be recommended in medical, veterinary institutions, where it is necessary to neutralize the infectious material. Waste sorting station is a complex plant, where the processes of extraction from waste recycling, obtaining fertilizers for agriculture, burning garbage to generate heat and steam.
In sanitation settlements liquid sewage is disposed to drain stations, representing structures, which are the channels for receiving and release sewage into the sewer, dilution with water. Cleaning of settlements is under the constant supervision of employees of the sanitary-epidemiological station, giving opinions on projects and carrying out preventive supervision and control over the organization and actions to clean.

Cleaning of populated areas - a system of measures for collection, removal and disposal of waste and cleaning of streets, squares, parks.
Cleaning of populated areas ensures the purity of settlements, reduces the possibility of contamination of soil, air, water, eliminates contact of the population with garbage, prevents the possibility of transmission of infectious and invasive diseases. Many types of waste, in particular industrial contain harmful, toxic substances, whose accumulation in the soil leads to pollution of water, air and plants (vegetables, berries and other). Waste and contaminated soil contribute to the spread of the flies.
There are two groups of waste: 1) solid (household garbage, remains of human economic activities, estimates from the streets and yards, waste from commercial enterprises; industrial pollution, dead animals); 2) liquid (allocation of human and animal encompassed by the term uncleanness; dirty water, waste water enterprises, do not remove the sewers).
In the task of cleaning of populated areas often include the collection, removal and disposal of only domestic waste, cleaning of streets, squares, courtyards. Collection, removal and disposal of liquid waste is often denoted by the term "sewage disposal". The settlements rectification of industrial waste is often stands out from the General cleaning is carried out by the enterprises themselves. In sanitary best effect is achieved by conducting events on the content of a settlement in purity on a single system, for which the responsible Council of deputies or municipal Department of the enterprise. Therefore, in the system of clearing settlements should be included and clearing of industrial waste.
Many waste can be used in agriculture only in strict compliance with sanitary regulations and in the presence responsible for recycling waste of institutions and individuals (collective farm, state farm, institutions in charge of waste collection).
Dispose of trash can: by collecting recyclable materials in their place of education in isolation from the whole garbage collections (paper, metal, textiles and others) or by dismantling waste special waste sorting plants; by collecting food waste, used to feed cattle; use of waste for stuffing of hotbeds; garbage processing in the compost.
The waste disposal industry achieved separate collection or extraction from the total mass of waste substances that may be used in the technological cycle of the given enterprise or a company (in this case, waste receive the name of industrial waste, unlike unusable waste).

yard waste collector
Fig. 1. Yard waste collector

All types of recycling of waste can be dangerous in the sanitary and epidemiological terms. So there are special sanitary regulations, compliance with which reduces or eliminates this risk.
The main method of cleaning is the removal of the waste to places where they are subjected to disposal or recycling. In the process of collecting waste should not be the contact of the population with waste and garbage. The export of waste shall be made in the shortest period of time. All methods of cleaning of populated areas should be as mechanized. These requirements are satisfied with regular scheduled basis cleaning system, implemented by public transport. Under existing in the USSR rules, the waste has to be delivered not less than once in three days, and sewage - 2-3 times a month. Detours quarters of the settlement are carried out according to a specially approved schedule, the observance of which supervises the sanitary supervision.
Use three types of planning and regular cleaning systems.
1. Garbage collection in metal yard waste (Fig.1), with tight-fitting lids to 100 liters (volume weight of 1 m3 of garbage about 400 kg).
Rubbish bins are emptied into the back of a garbage truck (Fig. 2).
2. More perfect in sanitary system of interchangeable collections in which the waste is transported along with the book (the container). This system was named container. The capacity of the containers of 0,8-1,0 m3. They are transported by truck to the special design (Fig. 3). On taken place put the empty containers.
3. In the absence in the yards of collections of residents in just a set time in waste transport render waste in buckets and poured them into the body of avtomobilevoza or horse wagon. This system is useful for small settlements.

the garbage truck
Fig. 2. Garbage truck for waste disposal with non-replaceable clearing system.
container truck
Fig. 3. Container truck for disposal of the waste in the shift system clean.

All containers must have the cap and installed on the paved part of the yard or on paved or hard Packed venues.
Multi-storey houses (above 5-storey) are equipped with garbage disposal. The barrel of the chute should be periodically cleaned and washed.
Liquid waste in the absence of sewage is collected in latrines and pomocnica. Recanalization buildings should ensure backlash-closets, held inside the building. Sewage and garbage should be collected in impervious to ground water and liquid well, of which the liquid waste is removed cesspool machine. To reduce the number of vygreba and facilitate their cleaning sewer machine, it is advisable to arrange General well for sewage and slops. The device so-called absorption wells and vygreba with no bottom and bring to an aquifer, in the USSR-Smoking.
Waste exported for destruction, disposal, or disposed of in the following places.
For improved waste spread a thick layer (the layer height is set marks the vertical planning of the territory). It is possible to use for this purpose the ravine, an abandoned quarry and other inconvenient for construction purposes and agriculture areas. The surface of the landfill is covered with a layer of soil or construction waste thickness 25-50 hedgehog, level and rammed. The slope of the landfill waste, if sipka their stops for more than 24 hours, should also be covered with a layer of earth.
On a properly operated dump there is no dust, no bad smell, flies and rodents, and inside waste develops a high fever.
On waste sorting plants waste is sorted at which emit large and small particles; then waste are electromagnetic separator to separate iron and come to the pipeline, which are manually selected non-ferrous metal, paper, textiles and other valuable raw materials. Small particles, or fines, serve as fertilizer.
On waste processing plants processed waste to
safe fertilizers. Waste crushed in inclined rotating drums, and then the crushed mass poured into a special bunkers, which is aged 5-6 days, being subjected to decomposition under the influence of bacteria. High temperature (50-60 degrees) inside the hopper is neutralizing waste into valuable fertilizer.
The burning of garbage produced in large centralized plants or in small facilities intended for the elimination of waste in medical institutions, at enterprises, etc., the Garbage contains a lot of moisture and ballast (inorganic matter), it is poorly lit and the products of incomplete combustion pollute the atmosphere, burn it need only with application of incremental fuel (best gas).
Other ways of disposal of waste is not spread. Overlapping debris litters fields, creates a large surface area, which attracts flies; biothermal camera unproductive, the waste is processed long (1.5-2 months.); the composting suitable only for relatively small amounts of garbage.
Liquid waste from recanalizing buildings is best to take out the drain station, where the filth is diluted with water in the relation 1:1 and 1:2, go through the grating and the sand trap and is discharged to the Sewerage system (see). The main San. requirements to the device drain stations: the distance from residential and public buildings not less than 300 meters; the device of supply and exhaust ventilation with extraction in areas of allocation of malodorous gases and air in the room station with a predominance of inflow. In order to improve working conditions are equipped with shower, dining rooms; workers are provided with overalls.
In the absence of Sewerage only way of neutralization of liquid waste are fields excreta disposal: sewage there are distributed evenly and zapugivaiut. A few years later fields are used for growing crops. On fields sanitation Pets sowing technical and fodder crops. Planting vegetables, reaching for food, is permitted not earlier than two years after the Gulf field sanitation, but on sanitary-epidemiological reasons, it is not desirable.
Composting of sewage is achieved with difficulty, as compost due to high humidity rarely heated to the desired temperature (50 degrees); composting of sewage appropriate together with peat or land.
Cleaning of populated areas is an important object of sanitary control. Sanitary doctors, assistants, in rural areas - health workers health centres should oversee using various methods (sanitary inspection, sanitary-helminthological, entomological and of bacteriological methods of laboratory tests).