Clothes

Clothing (hygienic requirements) must ensure the thermal balance of the body under various meteorological conditions, as well as protecting the body from damage and contamination. It should match the weather conditions taking into account the intensity of muscle activity and body condition (illness, age and gender features etc). Heat-shielding properties of the service depend on the weight and quality of the material from which made clothes, its thickness and mobility in the air. So, sponge has a higher thermal insulation properties than wool. Air temperature pagodinho space should be maintained within 28-32° at a relative humidity of 20-40%. To limit mobility pagodinho air is expedient to use wind-proof coating of thin dense tissue with low permeability and maximum seal pagodinho space. From the wind at low temperatures of air it is best protects leather or of rubberized fabric. Heat-shielding properties of service enhances the multi-layered service. To ensure free remove moisture emitted from the surface of the body, you want to use (especially for linen) natural fabrics with high moisture and vapor permeability. Synthetic fabric is more suitable for the outer layer of clothing. To heat clothing was easier (especially children), it is better to make a thin synthetic fabrics in combination with the light insulation. Head, lower back, legs and arms protect from cooling carefully. You should avoid excessive warming, not to cause a reinforced sweating (especially in children), as hydration service leads to a sharp drop in its heat-shielding properties that may cause loss of body heat and the emergence of colds.
Clothes for the warm period of the year should ensure maximum heat and protected from external heat input, which helps the use of service from materials of well-absorbing sweat and with low conductivity (better linen cloth). For sun protection clothes make light. Clothes made of viscose and polyamide fibres has good permeability to UV rays.
Synthetic fabrics little hygroscopic and easy electrified. For removal of electrification used in the production process antistatic additives. In order to avoid skin irritation and sensitization of the organism, leading to allergic diseases, new chemical products, used as apreton at furnish of fabrics, should be the appropriate test. Clothing made of synthetic fabric requires more frequent washing, as it becomes dirty quicker than the clothes from natural fabrics (linen of chlorine wash 1 time in 3-5 days, kapron stockings - daily).
Special requirements for children's clothes mobility in children thermoregulation and their great mobility. Baby clothes are supposed to protect the child from cooling and from overheating. For children clothing made from soft, absorbent (cotton) tissue, without rough seams. Her make free, not hinder movements (see Linen, child. Children older than 2 years, dressed in a shirt with a big neck. Underwear pants should stay on the straps or bras, and to be wider than the circumference of the abdomen on 8 see Panties girls should be done in the form of trousers.
To sportswear have the same requirements as for conventional, but more elevated. It should create the most favorable conditions under intense muscular activity and contribute to hardening of the organism. Preferable knitted fabrics that have a higher permeability and flexibility.

The main purpose of service is to ensure normal functioning of the body in various weather conditions. The most important physiological-hygienic requirements to clothes - compliance with its weather conditions taking into account the intensity of muscular activity, as well as the state of the body (acclimatization, illness, age and gender characteristics and others). More than a cooling influence on the organism meteorological conditions and the muscular activity of the less active, the higher should be the heat-shielding properties Acting With increasing thickness O. and a decrease in the mobility of the air inside the Acting increases its thermal resistance. So for heat O. you should choose materials with low bulk weight and characterized by stable thickness mechanical impacts, moisture and lasting wear. For example, the thickness of cotton wool when wearing the Acting is halved, and thickness of synthetic insulation of polyurethane foam (foam rubber) remains completely, therefore, is retained and the stock contained in the air.
To limit the mobility of the air in the heat of O. required maximum sealing pagodinho space, and wind-proof coating of thin dense tissue with a minimum permeability, however, sufficient to remove excreted from the body surface carbon dioxide and water vapor. Because the heat production is constantly changing, growing during the movement and working in 2 - 4 times and more, you must ensure that the regulation of heat-shielding properties Acting In clothes loose and motion enhanced convection currents pagodinho air, thereby reducing heat-shielding properties of O. This cut, in addition, provides maximum mobility and normal circulation of blood and lymph.
In thermal protective clothing should be provided for the removal of moisture released from the skin surface. Failure to do so leads to moisture O. accompanied by a sharp fall in its heat-shielding properties. Evacuation allocated vaporous and liquid droplet of moisture is high hygroscopicity, vaccum, vapour permeability, capillarity and evaporation materials, especially underwear. These properties to a greater extent have natural materials and to a much lesser - synthetic (kapron, lavsan, Nitron). Synthetic materials with good protection from atmospheric precipitation and wind, it is expedient to use for the outer layer About. Great weight O. an extra burden on the cardiovascular system, respiration, locomotor apparatus, heat so Acting, especially children and production should have little weight, which is achieved by replacing heavy fabrics of synthetic in combination with the light insulation.


When choosing heat O. you should consider the need of reinforced insulation of distal sections of the limbs, the head and lower back.
In order to temper the organism and the prevention of colds it is necessary to avoid excessive thermal protection, especially in children. Too warm O. leads to active sweating, hydration service, a sharp drop in its heat-shielding properties and hypothermia.
Clothes for the warm time of the year should provide the maximum heat of the body and protect against external heat input. Ensuring maximum evaporation released sweat achieved loose-fitting and select appropriate materials. The most expedient Grilles of materials that have a high absorption of escaping sweat with his quick evaporation from the surface of O. heat Conductivity of textile materials used for summer O. should be minimal. For protection against solar radiation necessary materials with high reflectivity - light tones and with a smooth surface. Additional requirement for Acting particularly hot and desert regions is shielding radiant heat by increasing of thermal resistance.
For the average climatic strip desirable clothes with a maximum permeability to UV rays. Positive impact in this regard give some artificial materials (rayon)and polyamide fibers.
The growing use of synthetic materials, put forward the necessity of increased demands for their hygroscopicity and capacity along with the elimination of the electrified and increased chemical resistance. The most feasible is the use of these materials in the form of Jersey, the structure weave which provides a combination of maximum insulation with satisfactory logopaedia. To reduce the electrified necessary anti-static additives.
To prevent skin irritations and sensibilisati, leading to allergic phenomena, sanitary-Toxicological monitoring of new chemical products used as coupling agents for natural, artificial and synthetic materials.
Certain requirements are to care About. aimed at the reduction of pollution and prevention of skin diseases.
Clothes made of synthetic fibres requires more frequent washing, as fouling her more than Acting from natural fibers (linen of chlorine should be washed 1 time in 3-5 days, kapron stockings - daily).
Evaluation of hygienic properties of the service is done mainly on the temperature of the skin and body, the intensity of convection and radiation heat transfer with the help of heat meters, climate pagodinho space, the degree of removal of sweat and carbon dioxide. Grilles of synthetic fibres requires, in addition, sanitary-Toxicological assessment.