The cooling effect of cold on the body, leading to pathological changes in the cooled parts of the body or the whole organism. At low external temperatures increase heat loss from the surface of the body is compensated for clothing and increase heat production (muscle drugs, active movement - see Thermoregulation). The prevalence of heat loss over the heat production under the overall cooling leads to hypothermia is the lowering of the temperature of the body, causing the growing oppression of the Central nervous system, metabolism and energy and vital functions. Development of hypothermia contributing States, violating the thermoregulation processes (blood loss, intoxication, anesthesia, fatigue, stiffness, humidity service, stay in cold water). Deep (below 25 degrees) hypothermia ends freezing (see), is possible a lethal outcome.
Strong cooling certain parts of the body causes local spasm of the blood vessels, blanching of the skin, poor circulation and nutrition cooled tissues and may lead to frostbite (see), sometimes to the defeat of surface lying nerve trunks (for example, facial and trigeminal nerve). Violation of the resistance of fabrics to the microbes in the local cooling can contribute to respiratory diseases (angina, tracheitis, bronchitis and other); in their development, in addition to the direct effect of cold on this area of the skin or mucous membranes, may play a role reflex disorders of blood circulation and trophic disorders in organs distant from the place of cooling, such as a runny nose when cooled stop, and so on, See. also Perniosis. Clinic and treatment of cooling. Cooling characterized by a reduction in body temperature and disorder of physiological systems of the body. In the first minutes, for example, staying in ice-cold water, come signs of cooling and even the possibility of sudden death; for 20-30 minutes develops severe cooling.
The clinical picture cooling distinguish period (state) of hypothermia and period (status) after cooling. Depending on the service, physical activity of the victim, the ambient temperature (air, water) and duration of cooling period hypothermia can occur either mild or moderate in severity cooling form (the fall of body temperature not below 32 degrees, the emergence of "goose skin", blanching of the skin, fever, rapid pulse, increased blood pressure, difficulty in breathing etc)or in the form of heavy (drop in body temperature below 32 degrees, various degree of disturbance of consciousness until his loss, cramps, vomiting, severe pallor of the skin with a bluish or greenish tint, more significant disorders of cardiac activity and respiration, the occurrence of complications: brain edema, lung, frostbite). Condition after cooling is characterized by headache, fatigue, fatigue, low grade, less high temperature, catarrhal phenomena and complications cooling.
Treatment cooling starts with warming of the victim. Depending on the severity of the cooling apply one of the methods of rapid warming. The latest in light and moderate cooling may be restricted by the reception of hot tea and food, or the warming of the victim under a warm shower; helpful reception inside 30-40% ethyl alcohol - 100,0-200,0 Jr. Prescribe prophylactic antibiotics and sulfanilamides, aspirin.
The victim may require bed rest. Treatment of the victim with heavy degree 0. same as treatment freezing (see), with the warming in warm water, with mandatory controls body temperature to prevent possible overheating and the adoption of the above measures against complications. It is very important to detect the signs of the present frostbite and to provide appropriate assistance (see Frostbite).

Cooling. In the cold effect on the body there are a number of General and local reactions that can cause colds, reduced body temperature, local changes in the tissues (in particular, frostbite) and be completed by the freezing of the body. The occurrence and severity of General and local reactions at cooling depends on the ambient temperature and the character of its impact (water, air), the velocity of the air (wind) and moisture, insulation rating of thermal protection of the organism and the degree of hydration of the skin, body condition and other factors. O. may occur when exposed to any temperature below the temperature of the body or individual tissues. Depending on the predominant General or local, influence of cold it is customary to distinguish between General and local O.
A General cooling of the lower organisms and a number of highly organized animals relatively quickly leads to lower body temperature. Most warm-blooded animals preceded by a period reflex adaptation to the influence of the cold. Of particular importance is the resulting narrowing of skin vessels, which reduces the heat and poses chills, dramatically increasing the heat production (see Thermoregulation). Upon further exposure to cold compensation heat loss is violated, the body temperature begins to fall, that ends with freezing (see).
The severity of the condition of the organism in General O. determined by the reduction of body temperature. When you drop it below 30 degrees can be perverted response to the introduction of some drugs (lobeline, tsititon, caffeine, alcohol), which should be considered when reviving frozen. So, for example, lobelin and tsititon instead stimulation of respiration can weaken it and to stop; caffeine and alcohol can lower blood pressure and even stop the circulation. O. often runs in the background of alcoholic intoxication; the severity of the condition and in these cases is determined by the degree of reduction of body temperature. Total O. impact not only on course of physiological reactions, but also on the flow of pathological processes. When cooling is reduced intensity and character changes of metabolism, decreases the need tissues of oxygen. This widely used in medical practice (see below - Hypothermia). Slow Acting General (air), the immediate cause of death is respiratory failure, when fast Acting (in the water) - the cessation of blood circulation, often arising from vascular collapse or fibrillation. Moderate (30 degrees) and average (25 degrees) degree hypothermia easily eliminated by active warming the body and application of a number of recreation activities. With deep cooling (below 25oC), regardless of the presence of breathing and heart rate you should immediately apply active warming of the body (it is impossible to warm your head!), artificial respiration (see) and measures to restore blood circulation (see the Revival of the body).

Local O. originally also characterized by a General reflex changes. Depending on the intensity, duration and localization cold exposure local cooling might have a beneficial or harmful effects. Short-Acting skin (rubbing wet or cold water) contributes to tempering (see) of the body. When local O. may reduce the temperature of deep tissues; this is based on the therapeutic use cold to combat hyperthermic reaction and to quickly reduce the temperature of the brain. The harmful effects of local O. effect in causing colds. Asthma attacks and strokes can occur even from short-term cooling of the respiratory tract or the skin. Local O. may reduce the body's resistance to infection. When the effects of cold on the skin sometimes there diarrhea, physiological, albuminuria, oliguria, anuria, as well as isoria.
With a sharp and prolonged exposure to cold can affect surface lying nerve trunks (branches of the trigeminal, facial nerves), part of the joints and muscles. Some people even from a weak cold exposure occurs painful numbness of the fingers. With a stronger, long-term and especially in the re local cooling there are functional disorders, edematous swelling of tissues (see Perniosis) and even gangrene peripheral parts of the limbs. At the forefront are the degenerative changes, not different from the observed if frostbite (see).