Health protection of children and adolescents

Health protection of children and adolescents in the USSR - the system of state and public measures that ensure the protection of health and harmonious physical and spiritual development of children and adolescents, prevention and reduction of morbidity and mortality.
In order to foster a healthy and comprehensively developed generation in the USSR, organized a wide network of children's medical institutions, kindergartens, boarding schools, forest schools, camps (including sanatorium) and other institutions.
Medical assistance to children and adolescents is provided by medical institutions. All the work on prevention and care activities among children and teenagers to 14 years headed the children's polyclinic (or children's Department in the clinic for adults); rural - rural district hospitals; in the district center - district hospital. Teenagers of 15-17 years old receive medical care in clinics for adults (General practitioners teen offices) or in the relevant offices of the medical unit of the enterprises. Directly in schools all treatment-and-prophylactic help to the students (I - X classes) has a medical staff of the school, located in the States children's polyclinics, medical stations and other Doctors and nurses of children's clinics serving pre-school institutions and schools, carry out all work in close collaboration and with the participation of all specialists and primary care clinics. In pre-school institutions and schools are created necessary conditions for preservation and strengthening of health and hygiene education of children.
The work of the medical staff of preschool institutions is aimed at creating conditions for proper mental and physical development of children, organization of physical education, nutrition, prevention of diseases, including infectious and equipping children hygiene practices, etc.
Since 1959, began Association of nurseries and kindergartens in the unified preschool - kindergarten where children from 2 months. up to 7 years. In nurseries, kindergartens is ensured continuity in the maintenance and education of children of different ages, as well as preparing them for further training in school.
Medical assistance to children in nurseries, kindergartens provided by the doctors of the children's polyclinics to which they are attached, and paramedical personnel directly in a manger-gardens (see the Nursery, nursery).
Educational work and training of children in schools are developed and implemented with the participation of the health authorities. Monitoring the health of children and recreational activities in preschool institutions and schools of the agencies and institutions of health, together with the organs and institutions of public education with the participation of public organizations. The medical staff of the school organizes and conducts the all sanitary-and-hygienic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures for health promotion, proper physical development of children, their successful training and education. The plan and schedule of the school doctors and nurses are consistent with the school Director and approved by the head physician of the clinic.
All students regularly (on schedule) undergo medical examination, which includes and anthropometric measurements, fluorography, visual acuity, hearing, condition of the teeth. All data of anamnesis, examination and recommendations for improvement are recorded in an individual card of the student; the children are divided into groups for the lessons of physical culture, the selection of children with health problems in the special medical groups and corrective exercises. If necessary during medical examination involves other doctors working in the clinic. All pupils with deviations in health status (threatened by rheumatism, patients with rheumatism, tuberculosis, convalescents, long and often ill, and others), are clinical supervision, it is necessary treatment (sanation of oral cavity, prophylactic and anti-drug treatment, physiotherapy and other therapeutic measures), taking all measures for their rehabilitation (at school, at home, in the clinic); if necessary, children are sent to sanatoriums, where they continue their studies.
To prevent infectious diseases students within the established deadlines preventive vaccines (against tuberculosis, smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio and other), the medical school identify infectious patients, children exposed to them; together with the sanitary-epidemiological stations carries out anti-epidemic work and San. supervision over the maintenance of premises and compliance with sanitary and hygienic norms and rules in school, supervises the work of the school cafeteria, dining rooms; sanitary-hygienic conditions of work of students in the employment workshops; organizing sanitary-educational work among students, teachers and parents. The school doctor provides medical monitoring of children in schools, including for children in extended-day groups, monitors adherence and nutrition of children in them.
Pediatric clinics are professional advice where students teenagers recommend some form of industrial training, depending on the state of health. Children's polyclinics are working on the organization and holding of the summer health improvement campaign. Conduct the inspections and selection of children in the health, tourism and public profile of the pioneer camp. Organize medical monitoring of children in health institutions, taking measures on prevention of infectious diseases and prevent their spread. Health protection of working adolescents - see Labour.
All research work on questions of health protection of children and adolescents is concentrated in research institutes of Pediatrics, hygiene of children and teenagers, school hygiene, relevant departments of the medical exploring modes secondary school students: work, leisure, physical education, state of health, physical development, develop different standards, sanitary-hygienic requirements for different types of children's institutions (schools, boarding schools, preschool institutions, pioneer camp and others). The role of nurses in the health of children and adolescents is very significant. A particularly important activity of visiting nurses in the pediatric consultations and nurses in the school. The task of the school nurse is carrying out together with the doctor of the sanitary-and-hygienic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures at school. Nurse or medical assistant working in the school, help the doctor in the health screening, sanitary-educational work among children, teachers, parents, technical personnel, supervise teachers in conjunction with the implementation of the rules of personal hygiene students, day regimen and nutrition in school.
Cm. also Children's home, kindergarten, child care, Health care, Consultation, Forest school, Protection of motherhood and childhood, Pioneer camp, a Sanatorium, a Nursery, day nursery-garden.

Health protection of children and adolescents - the system of state and public measures ensuring health protection and harmonious development of physical and spiritual forces of children and adolescents, prevent and reduce child morbidity and mortality.
In pre-revolutionary Russia there was the state system of health protection of children and adolescents. Minor activities on health education and elementary San. supervision was conducted from 1905 medical-sanitary parts educational institutions. The Soviet system of health protection of children and adolescents appeared in the first years after the great October socialist revolution. The Soviet government issued a number of decrees aimed at protecting the life and health of children, strengthening their power, to combat homelessness. Began to be established for children, preventive clinics, designed for contingents in age from 4 to 18 years of age and had the main task of the comprehensive examination the physical and psychological state of children and adolescents.
Medical help to children and teenagers have had, and General polyclinics. Children under 4 years of age were served by the institution of protection of motherhood and infancy. Later in Moscow and some major cities were established research institutes for health of children and adolescents, which became methodological centres for children's treatment and preventive clinics and all pediatricians. At the same time began the organization of the health of children's playgrounds (see), forest schools (see), pioneer camps (see), night and day spas (see Sanatorium), cafeterias and other diet
In the 30-ies and 40-ies of the structure of bodies of protection of health of children and adolescents underwent several reorganizations. Thus, in 1935 were created children's polyclinics. In 1947 in connection with Association of hospital and polyclinic institutions children's polyclinics and child health clinics were merged with children's hospitals or to the pediatric hospitals for adults. This system is functioning to this day. In the children's outpatient Department of a hospital children of all ages watching and treating pediatrician in this single medical area.
Pediatric clinics-consultations focused doctors schools and kindergartens, which provide medical supervision for children in schools and kindergartens.


In its work the medical staff of schools and kindergartens uses all auxiliary diagnostic and specialized offices of the children's polyclinic. Directs the work of doctors schools and kindergartens, chief physician of the children's polyclinic. Medical schools are carried out in the school of sanitary-and-hygienic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures that promote health, the right to physical development of children, their successful training and education. The plan and schedule of the school doctors consistent with the school Director and approved by the head physician of the clinic. All students once a year undergo a medical examination with the anthropometric measurements, fluorography, visual acuity, hearing and dental health. All data of the survey history and recommendations for improvement are recorded in individual card student. Together with the teacher of physical culture doctor distributes school groups for physical culture, make a selection in the group corrective exercises, controls the performance of physical exercises. The school doctor arrange for the inspection of patients students consultants-specialists and provides first aid to students, ill at school, takes on dispensary account children suffering from rheumatism, a tuberculosis, convalescents, long and often ill, etc. and is treating. To prevent infectious diseases among schoolchildren in the established terms conduct prophylactic vaccination (against smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, polio), identifying infectious cases, contact with them. Children's polyclinics in conjunction with the San.-the disease. the anti-epidemic stations conduct the work in the school. The medical staff of the school carries out the control for the sanitary maintenance of premises of the school, the students in the workshops, meals for students, conducts sanitary-educational work with students, teachers, parents. Pediatric clinics organized the so-called professional consultations, where students recommend some form of industrial training depending on their health condition. The school doctor provides medical observation in extended-day groups by pupils of 1-4 classes, controls power in these groups.
Children's polyclinics are working on organization and holding of summer recreation activities among children; examine the children, sent to camps, organise medical monitoring of children in summer camps, taking measures for preventing the introduction of infectious diseases in health institutions and their distribution.
The doctors of children's clinics provide medical examination of the children, sent to boarding schools. Medical observation of the pupils of boarding schools imposed on doctors, located in the States of these schools. Doctors and nurses working in kindergartens are located in the States children's polyclinics or children departments at polyclinics for adults. Its staff carries out in close contact with local doctors and specialists clinics. The work of the medical staff of kindergartens is aimed at creating the necessary conditions for proper mental and physical development of children, the introduction of physical education, the prevention of disease among them, instilling hygiene practices, prevention of infectious
diseases and so on (see kindergarten). Since 1959, began Association of creches and kindergartens in the unified preschool - kindergarten, which includes children from 2 months to 7 years. These institutions are in jurisdiction of the Ministry of education, the organization is carried out according to the regulations on the work of nursery-gardens, approved by the Ministry of education. In nurseries, kindergartens is ensured continuity in the maintenance and education of children of different ages. In this system, and improve the living conditions of the family, because parents who have 2 and more children are given the opportunity to bring up in a single institution and children, toddlers, and preschool age.
All research work but the health of children and adolescents is concentrated in research institutes of Pediatrics, hygiene of children and teenagers, school hygiene, which includes profiles of students of secondary schools, daily schedule, physical education, state of health, physical development, develop different standards, sanitary-hygienic requirements for different types of children's institutions (schools, boarding schools, kindergartens, pioneer camps and so on).