Protection of motherhood and childhood

Protection of maternity and childhood in the USSR - the system of state and public activities aimed at protecting the health of the woman and its most important function - birth of a healthy child, and his upbringing, comprehensive mental and physical development. The system of protection of motherhood and childhood in the USSR allows women to combine motherhood with participation in the production and social-political life of the country.
Essential principles of the system of protection of motherhood and childhood as an integral part of the entire Soviet system of health - state character and preventive orientation of all activities. Protection of motherhood and childhood ensures the unity and continuity of systematic monitoring of the health of women and children.
The system of protection of motherhood and childhood is constructed on the basis of a number of legislative acts on the protection of women's labor, pregnant and nursing mothers. Article 122 of the Constitution of the USSR women shall enjoy the right to participate together with men in all spheres of economic, state and public-political life of the country; it has the rights to work, leisure, education and social security. In addition, a number of legislative acts shall protect and encourage motherhood. Leave maternity leave to women workers, employees and collective farmers installed in 112 calendar days before childbirth and 56 56 after delivery), in the pathology of birth, the birth of two and more children maternity leave - 70 days. The Soviet legislation on health protection of pregnant women, mothers and children is the most advanced in the world. In Art. 38 of the "Bases of the legislation of the USSR and Union republics on health care, adopted in 1969, said on guarantees of health protection of mother and child and the promotion of motherhood.
Not employ women for heavy and hazardous work, to fire, refuse to hire or to lower wages due to pregnancy, to attract pregnant in overtime or night work, be sent on business trips during the whole period of pregnancy. Pregnant on the recommendation of a physician is entitled to switch to lighter work with preservation of average wages. On the expiry of postnatal leave, the woman is granted additional leave without pay with preservation of employment after the child reaches one year of age. Nursing mothers and women with children under the age of 1 year, provided every three and a half hours and additional paid breaks for feeding of the child. In case of illness of the child the mother is released from work with payment of benefits through social insurance. In the presence of a child aged from 1 year to 8 years of a woman can be sent to a business trip or leave, overtime work only with their consent.
The decision of the CEC and CPC of the USSR of 27 June 1936 and June 8, 1944 established state benefits lonely and having many children mothers. Mothers with many children receive the title of "Mother-heroine", awarded with "Medal for motherhood", the medal "Mother's glory".
The country developed a broad network of medical institutions, protecting the health of mother and child.
In 1970, in the USSR there were (in thousands): obstetricians-gynecologists 41,4; pediatricians 80,8; feldshers-midwives 81,3; midwives 216,0; beds for children in hospitals 444,1; of them for non-infectious patients 324,8; for infectious 92,6; for TB patients 26,7; women's consultation clinics and polyclinics (independent and members of other institutions) 21,0; the number of beds (medical and midwifery) for pregnant and lying-224,0. Institutions entrusted with the protection of motherhood and childhood are: maternity hospital (see) or maternity hospitals, maternity and child health clinics (see Consultation), feldsher-midwifery posts (see), children's polyclinics, hospitals or children's Department of the General hospital, nursery, kindergarten (see), children's sanatorium (see), the home of the child (see), scientific research institutes of obstetrics, gynecology and Pediatrics. Head all the security service of maternity and childhood. Main Department of health care of women and children within the Ministry of health of the USSR and similar control in ministries of health of the Union republics. Health protection of mother and the unborn child is ensured by the network of women's consultations, which regularly observe the pregnant and conduct activities to antenatal protection of the fetus. After the birth of a child comes under the supervision of a physician-pediatrician and nurse, sister (see Patronage, Consultation, children).
The important place in work with children take preschool children's institutions: nurseries, kindergartens, nursery-gardens. In the school the child is under the constant supervision of a school doctor. In medical school classrooms ill at school, the children receive first medical aid; conducting vaccination against smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, etc. the School doctor and school nurse pay much attention to physical training of children, carried out the whole complex of anti-epidemic measures. Medical examinations of schoolchildren, annual expanded preventive medical examinations, examination for admission of children in school, providing specialized medical-preventive help to children are child health clinics (see the health of children and adolescents).
The rapid growth of welfare and culture of the Soviet people and the achievements of the Soviet health created in our country the conditions for steady decrease child and maternal mortality, significant strengthening of children's health.
In the Directives of the XXIV Congress of the CPSU stipulates measures on further improvement of protection of motherhood and childhood.
Cm. also, Health care, healthcare Legislation, a kindergarten, orphanage, a Forest school.


Protection of motherhood and childhood - the system of state and public activities aimed at protecting and promoting the health of children, their full physical and mental development, creating conditions for preserving the health of women and carry out a very important function - birth of a healthy child and his education. In the USSR and other socialist countries, protection of motherhood and childhood is based on the law on the protection of women's labor, pregnant and nursing mothers. Mother and child provided legal and social assistance. In the implementation of measures on protection of motherhood and childhood greater role for the wide network of women's and children's treatment and prevention institutions, as well as kindergartens household purpose (see the Children's home, kindergarten, children's Home, Nursery).
Essential principles of protection of motherhood and childhood in the USSR: its public character, the preventive orientation of all activities, providing the opportunities for women to combine maternal functions with participation in the production and social life. Health protection of women and children is an integral part of the whole system of the Soviet health, is based on the fundamental principles of the past and ensures the unity and continuity of systematic monitoring of the health of women and children.
At the beginning of the construction of the Soviet state, has formulated main principles of protection of motherhood and childhood, published laws on labour protection of pregnant women and mothers who are breastfeeding; then began the organization of relevant institutions (children's and obstetrics). Already in the first years of Soviet power was established unified state system of protection of motherhood and childhood.
The law on the protection of the interests of mothers and children, carried out in the USSR, the most advanced in the world. The most important are the following legislative acts. Prohibited to employ women for heavy and hazardous work; to deny a woman in the hiring or dismissing her and reduce her wages in connection with pregnancy or nursing; engage in overtime and night work of pregnant women with pregnancy term of more than 4 months.) and nursing mothers; be sent on business trips pregnant women (from the fifth month of pregnancy) and feeding mothers. Provided: translation pregnant as instructed by the doctor easier work with preservation of the former average wage; holiday on pregnancy and sorts by the state for 112 days with full average earnings; the provision, at state expense, nursing mothers additional break for breastfeeding after 3.5 hours of work; the payment of benefits for the birth of a child; state benefits for families with many children and single mothers; mother release from work in case of illness of a child with payment of benefits through social insurance.
Many diverse connected together medical institutions guard in the USSR health of mother and child. The main obstetric institutions are maternity hospitals and obstetric departments of General hospitals. The maternity house consists of antenatal clinic and hospital. In some cases, women's consultations are Autonomous institutions (see Consultation, Maternity hospital).
Stationary assistance to women suffering from gynecological diseases, it turns out in the relevant departments of maternity hospitals or General hospitals.
In the USSR there is no city or a rural area where there was no hospital or obstetric Department of the hospital. Hundreds of thousands of beds provided for pregnant women and mothers, for gynecologic patients. Collective farm maternity hospitals provide inpatient obstetrics services to women in rural areas. There are several thousand antenatal clinics; one territorial obstetric land in cities serves approximately 3,000 women.
Typical treatment-and-prophylactic establishments for children in cities are children's hospitals or pediatric departments of General hospitals. The main structural parts of the children's hospital is a polyclinic and a hospital. Baby
polyclinics carry out constant monitoring of healthy children, carry out preventive measures (including vaccinations against acute infectious diseases), provide highly qualified medical assistance, introduce into the family of sanitary-hygienic skills. The basis of children polyclinic put precinct principle; district paediatrician caters to all children of their area under 16 years old, school children - until graduation. Children's services are strictly differentiated depending on their age and condition. Special attention is paid to the preventive maintenance of children difficult age, performed by a system of active patronage (see Consultation).
An important place in the maintenance of the child population is occupied in preschool Children's institutions: nurseries, kindergartens, nursery-gardens.
Since the start of the school the child is under constant medical supervision of the school doctors; the latter, with the help of school nurses, teachers, parents, health asset schoolchildren, monitors the implementation of hygienic requirements to educational process and the school itself. In medical school classrooms is the first medical aid ill in school children, are held revaccination against smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, etc. the School doctor and school nurse pay much attention to physical training of children, ensure the exercise in the school of the whole complex of anti-epidemic measures. Medical examinations of schoolchildren, annual expanded preventive medical examinations, especially when enrolling the children in school, providing specialized medical and Wellness care of children are child health clinics (see the health of children and adolescents).
A great place in the activity of treatment-and-prophylactic institutions serving women and children, is health education. The themes of his varied: hygiene of women, prevention of abortion and gynecological diseases, prenatal care, health care for an infant, his feeding and hardening.
Due to the presence of numerous and various medical institutions for the protection of motherhood and childhood and their broad activity became possible, as written N. A. Semashko, to protect all the way from child in the womb: consultations for pregnant - maternity care - advice for the mother and baby - nursery - kindergarten - children's polyclinics - hospital - health - resorts and so on, Nursing at home, advice for mothers on child rearing and other similar events raise sanitary culture of the population, create a coherent system of protection of the health of the younger generation.
From year to year in the USSR is expanding the range of activities in the field of protection of motherhood and childhood. Every year millions of children and adolescents have a rest in summer camps (see), children's sanatoria, excursion and tourist centers, holiday cottages. Continuously growing number of medical institutions that serve pregnant women, mother and child.
Scientific research in the field of health protection of mother and child in the USSR is conducted in a special research institutes of obstetrics and gynecology, Pediatrics and other institutions, as well as in the departments of medical institutions. Advances in medical science in the USSR in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, Pediatrics, physiology, hygiene, etc. had a huge impact on the development and improvement of protection of motherhood and childhood. To reduce maternal mortality contributed to the introduction into medical practice sulfa drugs and antibiotics: generic sepsis was extremely rare. Toxicosis of pregnancy (see) through deeper understanding of their causes and better prenatal care are not now so much of a threat, as in the past. Well-organized delivery of blood and its application in heavy bleeding, the success of anesthesia, skillfully conducted conservative management of labour with the use of reasonable boundaries caesarean section also contributed to the reduction of maternal mortality.
Significantly decreased the incidence of children in connection with the progress of medical science in the detection, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Through evidence-based and carefully organized preventive vaccination against diphtheria this disease in the USSR close to liquidation. Great progress has been made in the fight against polio. The vaccine, developed by the Soviet scientists, is widespread in many countries. Achieved favorable change in the incidence of whooping cough. Sharply decreased mortality for diseases such as dysentery. For several years there is practically no deaths from scarlet fever. Introduced in recent years in the practice of new scientifically developed and a more efficient method of BCG vaccination has led to a significant decrease in TB incidence among children and adolescents. Now forgotten helplessness doctor before tuberculous meningitis, and he almost never occurs. Rare were the cases of congenital syphilis. From year to year is reduced among the child population, the incidence of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.
As a result of radical improvement of the material and cultural living conditions of workers of the USSR, the state system of protection of motherhood and childhood, thanks to advances in medical science in the field of obstetrics, gynecology and Pediatrics has greatly improved the health of women and children. The average life expectancy of women in the USSR increased from 33 years (1896-1897,) to 73 years (1963-1964). By comparison with 1913. maternal mortality (see) fell by more than 15 times; infant mortality (see) have decreased more than in 9 times. Several times decreased mortality of newborns, babies and mertvorozhdennosti.
Great progress has been made in the protection of motherhood and childhood, the deployment of a network of medical institutions and to improve the physical development of children in the national republics. Cm. Health care also.