Carbon oxide

Carbon oxide (carbon monoxide), CO,is a colorless gas without smell, temperature boiling -191,5 degrees, the density relative to air 0,967. A mixture of carbon monoxide with oxygen (2:1) when ignited explodes. Carbon monoxide is part of coal, natural, generator, the exhaust, domain, powder and other gases; it occurs everywhere, where there are conditions of incomplete combustion of substances containing carbon. Toxic effects of carbon monoxide is due to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, which is not able to bind oxygen, causing oxygen deficiency occurs (hypoxia, anoxia).
Symptoms of acute poisoning with carbon monoxide: headache, nausea, vomiting, violation of color sense, the Central nervous system (shake, and tonic clonic convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma); heart disorder, disorder of respiratory, renal, endocrine glands, changes of the morphological composition of peripheral blood with a high content of carboxyhemoglobin. Body temperature usually rises (up to 38-40 degrees). Possible consequences, most commonly associated with disturbance of nervous and mental activity. May develop chronic poisoning with carbon monoxide, which is characterized by headaches, dizziness, vegetative and mental disorders, disorders of the cardiovascular (tachycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension), diarrhoea phenomenon, the increase in blood red blood cells, the contents of carboxyhemoglobin over 15%.
First aid at acute poisoning: immediately remove victim to fresh air, give to inhale ammonia, RUB the chest, leg - warmers, on the chest and back mustard. It is recommended that a hot drink, under the skin 1-2 ml of 10% solution of caffeine-benzoate sodium, in violation of breathing intravenous 0.3-0.5 ml of 1% solution lobelina, if breathing has stopped - artificial respiration.
Treatment of consequences of acute poisoning: oxygen treatment is especially effective under pressure in 2-3 at; when subkomatosnye excitation of prohibited drugs, when convulsions injected under the skin caffeine-benzoat of sodium. Drug therapy is symptomatic, aimed at combating anoxia and restoration of functions of the Central nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular system; effective vitamin.
Preventing carbon monoxide poisoning: mechanization and automation of basic production processes, streamlining technologies, organization of gas rescue service, systematic analyses of air carbon monoxide in the premises. Maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in the air of industrial premises of 20 mg/m3. Cm. the industrial Poisons.

Carbon oxide (carbon monoxide), CO is a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning coal and organic substances with insufficient airflow. Carbon monoxide is a little soluble in water (2,3 about. including about 100. including water at 20 degrees). A little lighter than air: 1 l of carbon monoxide at the temperature of 0 degrees and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. weighs 1,25001 g; temperature 205 sq°, temperature instrumentation 191,5 degrees (at a pressure of 1 ATM). Burning blue flame, carbon monoxide turns into CO2. At elevated temperature carbon monoxide is a strong reducing agent. O. y. widely used for the synthesis of many organic compounds, is a member of coal, generating, water and other combustion and industrial gases. O. y. poisonous.
Carbon monoxide as industrial poison. Carbon monoxide is released in the air in the blast furnace, open-hearth furnace, foundry production, production of coal, generating, water gas, light bulbs, for blasting in mines, working factory transport and other Carbon monoxide has a deleterious effect at a concentration of 60 mg/m3 of air. Maximum permissible concentration of 20 mg/m3.
Carbon monoxide enters the body through the respiratory tract by exerting toxic effects, caused by formation of carboxyhemoglobin, which is not able to bind oxygen. Coming oxygen starvation leads to the inhibition of tissue respiration and reflectory impact on the interoreceptors that together with the closure of a number of enzymes is the main in the pathogenesis of poisoning WITH.
There are acute poisoning (light, moderate and severe) and chronic. The main symptoms of acute poisoning: dysfunction of the Central nervous system, mental disorders, changes of organs of vision, contraviesa disorders, respiratory disorders (cough, pulmonary emphysema), disorders of cardiac activity, changes in the myocardium. In the blood, increasing the number of red blood cells to 5.6 million in 1 mm3, neutrophilic leucocytosis, oligopoly, the increase of iron in the serum, a decrease albumin and increased globulins, high levels of carboxyhemoglobin.
To remote consequences of the lungs poisoning include: hypotension, fatigue, changes in the heart and in the conduction system, discovered by ECG.
In the picture chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is dominated by the asthenic syndrome, disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous system. In the early stage of the complaints fatigue, headache, observed neurasthenia, violations of analytic functions (M. A. Kownacki). At later stages appear tachycardia, violations conductivity, arrhythmia, hypotension. From biochemical shifts the focus is increase of carboxyhemoglobin over C and increase blood cholesterol.
Treatment: in acute cases - Carbogen, caffeine, lobeline, methylene blue, glucose, iron preparations, novocaine, if necessary, artificial respiration, bloodletting (250-300 ml).
Prevention: mechanization and automation of basic production processes, streamlining technologies, organization of gas rescue service, systematic analyses of air carbon monoxide in the premises. If there are signs of chronic poisoning - temporary transfer to another job. Cm. the industrial Poisons.