Hydroxy acid is an organic compound that contains the hydroxyl molecule and carboxyl groups. The number of carboxyl groups (basicity) Oxyacids are divided into single, double and Tihonovna, the number of hydroxyl groups (tomnosti) - mono-, di - and so on, depending on the distance hydroxyl from carboxyla distinguish α-, b-, '- hydroxy acid, etc.
Oxyacids in free form or in the form of derivatives are widespread in the plant world and are part of a number of food products.
The simplest O. - viscous, liquid or crystalline substances that are soluble in water. In addition to the General intrinsic properties of alcohols and acids, O. are specific. So, they are better than the corresponding carboxylic acids that can split water; alpha-hydroxy acid form a cyclic esters - lactides, beta-hydroxy acid - alpha - and beta-unsaturated acids, and ' - and Delta-oxyacids - lactones.
Hydroxy acid can be obtained from galoidnykh exchange halogen for hydroxyl, the accession of water to unsaturated carboxylic acids and other
Apply Acting in medicine, textile, leather and food industry. Some oxyacids [lactic acid (see), citric acid (see)and malic, tartaric acid and glycerine] are the most important intermediate products of metabolism; β-hydroxybutyric acid is an intermediate product of fat metabolism, is formed by oxidation of higher fatty acids with an even number of carbon atoms.
Citric acid is used in medicine for the preparation of blood plasma at blood transfusion. Calcium salt gluconic acid (calcium gluconate) is used to restore normal levels of calcium in the blood. Salicylic acid derivatives have antipyretic and analgesic effect and are important products for the treatment of articular rheumatism.