Oncology

Oncology is the area of clinical medicine that studies the causes, mechanisms of development, clinical course of malignant and benign tumors and developing methods of their treatment and prevention.

Oncology - the study of tumors. Its main objectives in our time are the study of etiology and pathogenesis of malignant tumours prevention of cancer, organization and development of methods for early diagnosis and advances in surgical, radiation, drugs and combined methods of treatment.
In the USSR - the first socialist country, laid the foundations of the new state system free, available to all citizens health, was first established state Oncology service, organized a network of specialized oncological institutes, clinics, offices, providing the entire population of our country oncological help. The objectives of this service are accounting for cancer patients, organization of timely diagnosis, treatment, prevention and sanitary-educational work with the population.
Currently, the Oncology service of our country has made significant progress. Noted stabilization of standardized indicators of morbidity malignant tumours in General. Women revealed a tendency to decrease morbidity. Over the years, increasing the slowdown in mortality compared with the General increase in morbidity. The number of people cured of malignant tumors from year to year grows and reaches, according to recent statistics, 2 million people.
In the diagnosis and treatment of oncological diseases take part doctors of different specialties. Cancer patients, as a rule, first go to the clinic to a doctor of the General medical network-a surgeon, a therapist, a gynaecologist, otolaryngologist, pediatrician, and the main task of these specialists is to suspect a tumor. Therefore, every doctor, regardless of his clinical specialty, should be well aware of clinical signs of diseases, methods of treatment of tumors and organizational structure of Oncology service in order to destination and promptly deliver a cancer patient or a patient with suspected tumor in the establishment of a corresponding profile.
The increasing importance of Oncology in recent decades has led to the need to allocate the teaching of this discipline as a separate subject and practical specialty at the departments of Oncology at the medical institutions. Rapid progress of scientific knowledge, the emergence of special methods of diagnostics and treatment of tumors, as well as the availability of well-organized and powerful network oncological institutions and relevant personnel working in them, made feasible the teaching of this discipline on the basis of the specialized agencies.
For more focused training cancer expert coaching has become necessary to create a single textbook. We offer a textbook for students of medical institutes is published for the first time. It presents modern concepts about this science and practical profession. It consists of two parts. In the first part sets out the issues of General Oncology, second comes the most common human cancers, their diagnostics and treatment. The textbook is designed for medical students of senior courses already familiar with medicine.
In the work on the text of the textbook was attended by members of the Department of Oncology II molgmi them. N. I. Pirogov associate Professor I. N. Pavlov and assistant I. Century Kuzmin.
Diagnostics and treatment of malignant tumors continuously improving, changing our ideas and views on the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer, on the relationship between the tumor and the body, improving teaching methods. In this connection there is a need for continued work on the content of the textbook, so all critical comments and constructive proposals aimed at improving the quality of the tutorial will be accepted with great gratitude.