Operations on the organs of the chest

Surgical interventions on the lungs and pleura are most common for chronic purulent and tumor diseases. The condition of the patient is determined by the extent of the pathological process in the lung tissue, intoxication, the presence of scarring and adhesions formations, the degree of disturbance of the function of external respiration, functional state of other organs and systems, time passed since the onset of the disease, the age of the patient.
Chronic suppurative lung disease occurs most often in the background of chronic pneumonia or chronic bronchitis. Prolonged inflammatory process goes from the bronchi of the surrounding tissues, in the lungs growing connective tissue, deformed bronchi in the extensions which sputum stagnates and suppurate (bronchiectasis). In some cases occurs purulent fusion of pulmonary tissues with the formation of cavities filled with pus - lung abscess. Sometimes the abscess breaks through into the pleural cavity, causing her purulent inflammation - empieme. Purulent diseases of the lungs come in waves, with sharp rises in temperature (the accumulation of pus), cause intoxication, violation of metabolism, greatly weaken and exhaust patients.
Operation on a light most often consists in destruction of lung tissue (segment, shares, shares a light). Sometimes removing only a part of the large bronchus with sprouting into the lumen of the tumor.
Heart operations are performed for congenital heart disease, narrowing (stenosis) of the left atrioventricular holes, the combination of the failure of the valves with their contraction. Depending on the form of Vice operations are reduced to cut narrowed atrioventricular holes in mitral stenosis - commissurotomy, bandaging arterial duct with congenital cleft him, the closure of birth defects in the walls of the heart, artificial prosthetic valves and large vessels, stitches for the wound of the heart, the destruction of blood clots by traumatic tamponada pericardium cavity and the compression of the heart, etc.
Surgical treatment of severe pulmonary diseases and injuries of the chest, heart defects, when necessary prosthetic valve, etc., is carried out in conditions of artificially controlled respiration in the "dry"heart, i.e. on the heart, temporarily excluded from the circulatory system. When opening the chest cavity dissect the various groups of muscles of the rib cartilage, often excised several ribs, produce manipulation near reflexogenic zones (the root of the lung, aorta, mediastinum pericardium). It is often used pharmacological agents that block sensitivity of nerve receptors that, on the one hand, reduces pain syndrome, and on the other, inhibits the activity centers vital organs respiratory, cardiovascular. It should be borne in mind when activating the sick immediately after the operation with the help of special physical exercises aimed at the restoration of the functional state of the CNS, violated as the introduction of pharmacological means and the large flow of pathological impulses with the injured area or surgical field.