Operating tables

Operating tables - various design tables available for patients when performing surgery.
Various designs operating tables provide for the possibility of giving a patient is in various positions (depending on the area of operations, its nature, phase) to ensure operating free access to the required areas of the body and organs. However, given the patient should not adversely affect the functions of the body, especially on breathing and circulation.

operating table
Fig. 1. Universal operating table.

Fig. 2. Removable devices to the universal operating table: 1 and in - noteriaty; 2 and 8 - flywheels, 3, and 5 - precedentele; 4 - podobnik; 7 - frame; 9 - headrest; 10 - blind; 11 - lateral; 12 - cuff hand; 13 - podnosnik; 14 - table for surgery on his hand; 15 - suspension table; 16 - zone; 17 - frame; 18 and 19 - side stops.

Fig. 3. The main provisions of the patient on the operating table.
orthopedic table
Fig. 4. Orthopedic Desk.
dressing table /><br />Fig. 5. The dressing table.</td>
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Fig. 6. Mobile dressing table.

Universal operating table (Fig. 1) consists of a massive base (7) with three legs, with rotating rollers to move the table. These videos are fixed by lowering locking levers (10). Inside the base of the table posted by oil compressor with pedals: large (8) for lifting the table, the average (9) for its lowering and low (11) for locking circular spins table on the leg. The leg of the table associated with a Board (panel) of table 1 to 3 and 5), consisting of jointed fixed (spinal and pelvic) and removable (the head and foot of the section.
Board position alter table using located on its bottom surface of handles. The rotation handle (6) provides lifting and lowering both ends of the table. The inflection table in the middle part is achieved by rotating the knob (12) (longitudinal slopes). The most frequent Board position operating table - horizontal, sometimes with a slight lift of the head section. Transverse slopes operating tables in one direction or another is produced with removable handle (13), you can insert it into a square socket. Retractable bridge (4), the appointment of the bridge - lifting lumbar (for example, by operation of biliary tract, spleen and other). Push it with removable handle.
The head part of the universal O. S. can be replaced stand for head bowl-shaped or u-shaped. In addition to these stands for universal operating table attach other removable devices (Fig. 2: procedurally, elbow stand, side stops, cuffs for her wrists, noteriaty, stand for bottles and vials, tables for operations on the upper extremities, frame (screen) for isolation of a patient's head during surgery and other
On the universal operating table, the following main provisions of the patient (Fig. 3). The most common one is the horizontal position. It is given to the patient in most of operations: on the face, neck, chest, abdomen, with amputations of limbs and other Types of it are poluciaetsea position with raised the upper part of the torso and head, lying on the back with head thrown back (for example, if the operation on the thyroid gland), the situation in the abdomen (for example, from the operations in the sacral region, rear thoracotomy and others), on the side with a break in the lumbar region (with operations on the kidneys) and several others. Position with a raised pelvis and head down (see Trendelenburg position) is achieved by lowering and consolidation of the foot end of the Board table, and dropping the rest of the Board table. So that the patient doesn't slip add shoulder lugs. Position on the back with the allocated limbs bent in hip and knee joints, attached with operations on the perineum, the rectum , and others To make this situation a foot lower end of the table, in a special socket insert and fix footrest.
The more sophisticated the universal operating tables with automatic control. Changing the position of the table is made with the help of a hydraulic pump, driven by an electric motor. The management of this table focuses on the control panel, located at the head end of the table, knows them by the anesthesiologist.
In addition to operating tables for General surgical operations, there O. C. special purpose. For orthopedic and traumatologic operations, as well as for the imposition of certain types of plaster bandages is designed pillowtop table (Fig. 4). The table allows the traction of lower extremities and thanks to the support under the sacrum leaves open the lumbar region, pelvis and hips to the imposition of the cast; for urological surgeries, diagnostic procedures, as well as x-ray examination of patients with urological - rentgenologicsky table; for children up to 5-7 years - children's surgical table with heated panel.
Care operating table after each operation the surface of the operating table disinfectant wipe antiseptic solution (for example, solution of mercuric chloride) and dim sterile sheets. Especially carefully process the operating table after purulent surgery. In the end of the day for protection against clogging moving parts O. S. is covered with gauze or sheets.
Mobile part of the table periodically subjected to the lubricant. Necessary scheduled inspections of the operating table.
For the production of dressings in the supine position of the patient are used as dressing tables more simple in comparison with the operational style of the device (Fig. 5), often mobile (Fig. 6).

The main part of modern operating tables (Fig. 1) the following: base, or the bed (1), various forms; stand, closing mechanism oil lifts (2); cover (3), consisting usually of several sections (brain, spinal, pelvic and leg); the mechanism for lifting panel (4), longitudinal and lateral tilting her, tilting back section and others; the set of removable devices for fixing parts of patient's body. O. S. should be designed to give the body a different position. The most typical situation is as follows. 1. The horizontal position on the back - during operations on the face, neck, chest, abdominal (with front access), bladder, external male genitalia, with amputations of limbs (Fig. 2, 1). Varieties provisions on the back: with his head thrown back (position on rose), such as thyroid surgery (Fig. 2, 2); with sharply thrown back his head - when the esophago-and bronchoscopy (Fig. 2, 3); with cushion placed under the bottom edges - in operations on the organs of the upper section of the abdomen; with lumbar cushion - in operations on the organs of the middle division of the abdomen (Fig. 2, 4); assigned to the lower legs, bent at the hip and knee joints,- if perineal access; Trendelenburg position (Fig. 2,5); the position of the Fowler (Fig. 2, 6). 2. Position on the back with the allocated upper limb, laid on the table (Fig. 2, 7). 3. A prone give the patient during operations in the occipital region, at the back thoracotomic operations, operations on the spine, in the sacral region, clear access to the rear surface of the lower limbs (Fig. 2, 8). Varieties position on his stomach: head down - in operations on the posterior fossa (Fig. 2, S); regulation on Overholt - in operations on the lungs; with a raised area of the pelvis - in operations on the rectum and perineum. 4. Position on the side (on the right or left) full-time or part - in operations on the chest (front-side or rear-side approaches, Fig. 2, 10), with operations on the kidneys (under the lumbar region enclose roller Fig. 2, 11). Lower leg bent at the knee and hip joints, top left, straight. 5. Occasionally the patient give a sitting position on the table, mounted in a chair (Fig. 2, 12), or across the usual O. S. Sets of adaptations, allowing to give to the patient to O. S. various provisions consist of the head, shoulders, noteriaty, tables (for operations on the upper extremities), metal arc for hanging sterile sheets, demarcates the head, which is operated from the anesthesiologist. Structurally connected with O. S. removable devices for occipital region, renal roller. In the tables of the simplest designs part devices can be absent and replaced various forms cushions, covered with oilcloth or plastics (PVC skin and others).

Fig. 1. The main part of the operating table II class.
Fig. 2. The position of the patient on the operating table (1-12).

The most simple in design dressing tables. Their prototype - table A. A. Bobrov. For the imposition of plaster bandages still use wood tables E. K. Nikiforova (Fig. 3), A. C. Kaplan (Fig. 4). Field O. S. (Fig. 5) belongs to the number of simple tables; this O. S. usually do the folding and released in laying box-case. During the great Patriotic war S. S. Yudin constructed Hiking wooden table (Fig. 6) for the application of plaster bandages (hip, ankle, foot).
Rentgenologicsky table (Fig. 7) oil hoist mounted with remote control x-ray diagnostic installation of URD-K. For children up to 5-7 years of age constructed child O. S. (Fig. 8); the panel of this table, unlike others, is heated.
For ENT-operations and research is otorhinolaryngology chair. Maxillofacial and dental operations are performed dental polunarkotiki chair.
A necessary accessory of every O. S. - screw stools that allows you to easily change the height of the seat, or more complex with upholstered seat, round and round back.

Fig. 3-8. Operating and dressing tables. Fig. 3. Dressing table E. K. Nikiforova. Fig. 4. Dressing table Century A. Kaplan. Fig. 5. Field operating table. Fig. 6. Orthopedic table C. S. Yudina. Fig. 7. Rentgenologicsky Desk. Fig. 8. Children's surgical table.