Ophthalmoplegia - paralysis of separate groups or all of the muscles of the eye. Can be single - and double-sided. There ophthalmoplegia resulted in the defeat at different levels of the cranial nervesthat Innervate the eye muscles, various pathological processes (inflammation, bleeding, swelling and other). Depending on which muscles are affected, there are ophthalmoplegia external, internal and complete.
In the exterior ophthalmoplegia is paralysis of the external eye muscles, which is accompanied by stiffness of the eyeball and ptosis of the upper eyelid (ptosis). Internal ophthalmoplegia develops paralysis of the muscles of the iris and ciliary body; this leads to the expansion of the pupil, the disappearance reaction to light and convergence, disorder of accommodation (see accommodation of the eye). Full ophthalmoplegia, i.e., paralysis of the eye muscles (internal and external)causes ptosis, immobility of the eyeball, pupil dilation with the lack of response to light and convergence, the ccomodation. As ophthalmoplegia most often is a symptom of the disease of the Central nervous system or the overall infectious diseases, patients with signs of ophthalmoplegia need examination, an ophthalmologist and a neuropathologist.

Ophthalmoplegia (from the Greek. ophthalmos - eye and plege a shot, defeat) - paralysis of one or more of the cranial nerves (oculomotor, block and outlet), Innervate the muscles of the eyes.
Ophthalmoplegia can be unilateral or bilateral. In addition, there are full O., when both paralyzed all optometry nerves that Innervate and outer, and the inner eye muscles, and partial O. the Latter in turn are divided into internal, when only paralyzed nerve trunks, control iris and the ciliary body, and the outer, when broken only innervation of muscles, raising the upper eyelid, and external eye muscles. When full O. always see typical ptosis of the upper eyelid (ptosis) and full immobility of the eyeballs, located in a slightly divergent state. The pupil expanded and still, and the accommodation unit is not working.
Both full and partial ophthalmoplegia can be congenital and acquired. Congenital O. often combined with other malformations of the eye (epicanthus, congenital of coloboma and others). Acquired About. can occur acutely or chronically. Occurs it is usually as a result of an isolated intracranial lesions cut oculomotor nerves or their nuclei. Internal O. occurs usually as a result of an isolated lesion kernel III pairs of cranial nerves.
Acute ophthalmoplegia may be a symptom of developing encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, and also occur on the soil of any severe total infections (syphilis, tuberculosis) as a complication purulent inflammation of the sinuses, sometimes as a manifestation of acute General intoxication (food poisoning) or a severe infection (fever, diphtheria, malaria). To acute O. applies the so-called exophthalmic (Fig. 1)observed in some forms of endocrine disorders associated with lesions of the thyroid gland. Chronic ophthalmoplegia develops when the spinal " dryness", progressive paralysis, multiple sclerosis (Fig. 2 and 3). Therapy O. comes to the treatment of the main disease, which led to the development of oculomotor paralysis of the nerves.

exophthalmic ophthalmoplegia
Fig. 1. Exophthalmic ophthalmoplegia.
chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia
Fig. 2. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.
chronic unilateral external ophthalmoplegia
Fig. 3. Chronic unilateral external ophthalmoplegia.