Musculoskeletal system (8 lessons)

In this topic, students should learn about the skeleton and muscles as a single locomotor apparatus of the body.
Here are specified already gained by students in the course of Zoology concepts of protection, support and motor functions of the skeleton, the formation of new concepts about the structure and functions of the muscles as the active part of the musculoskeletal system. Development of a concept of the nervous regulation, its reflex principle is based on the knowledge of the coordination of the muscles.
It is particularly important that the topic is deepening the concept of inhibition is a mandatory component of the nervous regulation in the organism.
General biological concept of the relationship of the structure and functions finds concrete expression in the structure and functions of bones, joints, muscles.
Material about the relationship of muscle contraction with nervous excitement and work of the bodies, delivering nutrients and oxygen, provides an opportunity to continue the development of students ' concepts of holistic unity of the body.
Knowledge of topography and names of major departments and bones important for orientation in the location of all human organs. Remembering these names easier for students with information about the skeleton mammals, which they received in the course of Zoology. Not necessary to demand from students learning the names of all the muscles, and can be limited to those that are particularly well developed in humans (calf, gluteus, four-knee extensor), as well as those who participate in respiratory movements (large breast, intercostal, the rectus abdominis) or are used to illustrate the principles of the muscles (biceps and triceps, extensors and flexors fingers).
Familiarity with the skeletal and muscular system provides rich material for the formation of the concept of human origins, which is of great importance for atheistic education. To this end it is important to establish the similarities and differences of the locomotor system of humans and mammals animals. Setting the similarity in these systems, students can see the origin of man from the animal ancestors and, therefore, in an insolvency of the religious dogmas of the creation of God. Find out the difference, they will learn about the qualitative characteristics of the historical development of man, which is important for understanding of the unity of biological and social factors of human nature.
The programme provides for the hygienic education of students. Starting with lessons on this topic, the teacher focuses students on the question about the positive influence of muscular activity on the body. A variety of hygienic knowledge in connection with this theme should give according to the study anatomical and physiological concepts. Thus, when studying the structure of bones discusses issues of spinal curvature, of correct fit and posture. When getting acquainted with the material about the connection bones appropriate to teach about the first aid at dislocations.
The final lesson topics devoted mainly to repeat and generalization of all hygienic knowledge.
To learn a big anatomical section topics the students will help independent observations will SROM body and independent work on the text and pictures of the textbook.
Part of semnalului done at home, but many of them can be done in class (first aid measures fractures and dislocations).
Laboratory experiments under the topic is not assigned. Finding properties decalcified and calcined bones easier to carry out in order of operation with handouts.
The content of the subject many morphological material successful studying which is only possible with the use of visual AIDS.
Almost every class should be used skeleton (natural or artificial). The second lesson is necessary to prepare a handout set vertebrae man and a separate bones (ribs, the bones of the hands and feet of the skull). The third lesson is the need to have for distribution to normal, decalcified and calcined bird or fish bones, boiled or fresh pieces of bones of mammals.
For the fourth lesson should be prepared for all students dumb card: "the Scheme of the structure of a joint" (Fig. 7) and "Various forms of joints (Fig. 8) and the ancillary material that can perform the role of tyres in the provision of first aid (line, plates, sticks). On the eighth lesson should bring a dumbbell or kettlebell weighing 3 and 5 kg

Fig. 7. The scheme of the structure of the joint (sample dumb card)

Fig. 8. Various forms of joints (sample dumb card)
Write down in a notebook, what are the possible movements in each of these joints