Opujolevidnami viruses

Opujolevidnami viruses are called viruses that cause tumors in animals. Except this property opujolevidnami viruses are no different from other viruses. The group Acting century, recently has considerably enriched by typical infectious viruses (adenoviruses, SV-40, and others).
Opujolevidnami viruses, depending on the type of nucleic acids are divided into two groups: RNA - and DNA-containing. To RNA-containing carry viruses leukemia chickens and mice and breast cancer mice. These viruses in size from 60 to 140 MMK are composed of solid centre - nucleoid and two surrounding membranes; development cycle takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. These viruses termolabilnyh, hardly cultivated in vitro, without cytopathic effect. The leukosis virus chickens was opened in 1908 by Ellerman and Wang (V. Ellermann, O. Bang) and is the first of the renowned Acting century Distinguish viruses myeloblastosis, erythroblastosis and lymphomatosis chickens; close to them sarcoma virus chickens rous. Lacasalatina viruses chickens kindred in biological, immunological and biochemical relations. Range of pathogenicity of the virus rous is very wide: it causes tumors in chickens, ducks, pigeons, turkeys, mice, rats, rabbits, Guinea pigs, hamsters and monkeys. Open-causing viruses in mice all types of leukemia: lymphatic [gross (L. Gross), 1951, Malone (J. Molony), 1960], myeloid [Graffi (A. Graffi), 1956], reticular (Frend (S. Friend), 1957] and hemocytoblasts [N. P. Mazurenko, 1957, 1960; Rauscher (F. Rauscher), 1962]. The number of open viruses continues to grow and has already exceeded twenty, but in its properties newly discovered viruses are very similar or identical to a previously allocated. Division of viral leukemia mice and chickens on the nature of the pathological process is conditional, as under certain conditions the same virus can cause different forms of the disease. Infants and young animals more susceptible to most viruses than adults. Some of the viruses leukemia mice pathogenic for rats. A characteristic feature of leukemia viruses, unlike DNA-containing opujolevidnami virus, is a constant presence in their tissues of animals at all stages of the disease. The virus of Bittner, otherwise "factor milk", characterized by strict species and tissue specificity: only causes breast cancer among susceptible strains of mice; in the emergence of diseases play an important role hereditary and hormonal factors.
To DNA-containing including viruses papilloma Sopa, polyamy and vacuolating monkey virus SV-40, United by the first syllables of their names in the group Papova. Their sizes range from 40 to 55 MMK. They consist of 42 subunits have axial symmetry, relatively stable and do not contain lipids. Cycle of development occurs in the kernel. The human papilloma virus, Sopa strikes rabbits, causing benign skin tumors, some of which malignities. In contrast, the virus polyoma opened in 1958 Stewart and Eddie (S. E. Stewart, B. Eddy), with the introduction of newborn animals can cause several dozens of tumors of various localization in mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits, Guinea pigs, ferrets. This virus is highly antigenic has cytopathic effect in tissue culture, agglutinated erythrocytes. The owner of the virus SV-40 is the monkey, but tumors it causes in Golden hamsters. Antigenic commonality between viruses group Papova not. Drugs nucleic acids of these viruses have infectious properties. DNA also contains large, forming in the cytoplasm of cells bullock-include viruses that cause of fibroids in rabbits, squirrels and deer. Close to them Yabe-the virus that causes the monkeys epidemic gistiotitarnaya benign spontaneously regressing tumors of the skin. To this virus was susceptible people. There is information about viral origin papillomas in dogs, cattle and humans, but these opujolevidnami viruses has not been studied. O. C. cause tumors and amphibians; an example is the virus Luke is the cause of cancer of the kidney in frogs. Recently there have been reports of successful cell-free-perebivaj bovine leukemia and lymphosarcoma cats. Interesting data Epstein (M. Epstein, 1964) on the positive result of infected monkeys material from fabrics of Burkitt lymphoma is the first and so far the only malignant tumors person may have a viral etiology. Finally, the crucial work Trentina (J. Trentin, 1962) and Huebner (R. Huebner, 1962, 1965)showed that adenoviruses 12,18, 7, 3, 5 and 21 serotypes have the ability to cause cancer in laboratory animals.
Epidemiology of viral tumors are poorly understood, however, mechanisms for the transfer of a number of O. century. For example, when leukemia and breast cancer mice have the so-called vertical path of infection, which occurs in utero infection of the offspring or the transfer of the virus from mother's milk; when leukemia chickens virus is contained in eggs; when lymphomatosis chickens is an extremely contagious disease - primary, apparently, is an airborne mechanism of infection. Opujolevidnami viruses are usually found in a hidden state l can does not manifest itself for several generations of animals. In many cases, for the occurrence of the disease requires additional factors: genetic, hormonal and other Latent O. century can be activated by different influences: it is established that the leukemia induced in nikolaichenko lines of mice-ray view (gross, 1958), the introduction of vaccinia virus (N. P. Mazurenko, 1957) or carcinogenic substances, have a viral etiology. From latent distinguish the "masked" (deprived of pathogenic action) opujolevidnami viruses. Difficulties allocation O. V. from many tumors associated with the disguise their various inhibitors or extremely low concentration in the cell. The mechanism of occurrence of tumors under the influence of the O. C. unclear. According viral genetic concept L. A. Zilber (1945, 1962) O. century hereditary transform normal cells in the tumor by making its genetic information into the host cell genome and their integration. Cm. also Viruses.