Principles of prevention of tumors

Although the etiology and pathogenesis of neoplasms still not completely understood, the accumulated scientific evidence about the tumors help identify two ways of their prevention: the prevention and the prevention of the development.
The first of these paths is based on the idea of blastomogenic agents that can act on people. This view arose due to the observations over the so-called professional tumors. Eliminating or at least reducing the number of harmful effects contributes to the prevention of these cancers. All known observations of occupational cancer and the whole vast experimental material for the study of carcinogenic agents suggest that the emergence of Acting depends on the dose blastomogenic agent. The smaller the dose, the fewer people or animals will appear cancer and also at a later date. So even only reducing the number blastomogenic substances acting on a person, is, undoubtedly, faithful through prevention O. Cancer chimney sweeps, cancer radiologists and some other professional cancer virtually disappeared due to the change of working conditions, the introduction of new technology, protective measures and personal hygiene, which contributed to the elimination of effect on the organism blastomogenic agents. These facts prove that the principal possibility of cancer prevention. However, the effectiveness of even very small doses blastomogenic substances, long term of the patent period, the complexity of the mechanisms of action, differences carcinogenic agents, and the opportunity summation effect NC does not define animal, what minimal doses of carcinogens probably don't cause cancer.
In this regard, for blastomogenic substances is very difficult to establish the maximum permissible dose in the sense of hygienic standardization, which should be borne in mind in connection with the possible contamination of carcinogenic substances of the human environment.
In the USSR there is a systematic work on prevention of professional tumors of the bladder, discontinued production of beta-naphtylamine and 3,3'-dichloro-benzidine, which is a strong carcinogenic agents are not permitted organization of production of 3,3'-deoxybenzoin embedded sealed method of obtaining of benzidine.
Blastomogenic harm can act on people not only in the conditions of professional activity. They can "grow" from a professional in the household. This happens with involvement in contact with them broad masses of the population. For example, some products of aniline-dye industry can be used as food dyes. It is known, for example, that in a number of countries in my time as a dye for oil, margarine, flour, pasta was used called "butter Gelb" this carcinogenic substance, as dimethylaminoazobenzene, calling in mice and rats liver tumors.
The study of certain kinds of professional cancer proved blastomogenic the hazards to human food philogenetically fuel treatment, tar, soot, fumes. Pollution of the inhaled air by man blastomogenic substances, primarily hydrocarbons, may occur at the expense of heating systems, industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust and dust with godronnierung roads. Pollution of atmospheric air blastomogenic substances is one of the causes lung cancer. So, was obtained experimental lung cancer in rats by intratracheal injection carcinogenic hydrocarbons (Fig. 12, 16 and 17).
Reduction of pollution of atmospheric air blastomogenic substances can be achieved by selecting an appropriate fuel, improving its mode burning, improvement of methods and equipment for capture of fumes, rationalization of urban development (creation of green areas between the industrial enterprises and residential buildings, district heating and electrification), etc. In the USSR is such a struggle for reduction blastomogenic of air pollution (for example, the reconstruction of old industrial enterprises, rational planning of new towns and other).
Detection blastomogenic substances in different smokes forced to pay attention to tobacco Smoking as one of the possible causes lung cancer. A number of clinical and statistical observations, as well as the results of physical-chemical and experimental researches testify in favor of such a possibility. In tobacco smoke discovered a small but certain number of such known carcinogenic substances, as 3,4-benzpyrene (1 to 2 mg per 100 smoked cigarettes or cigarette). Against the harmful action of the products area there are a number of preventive measures in the form of reduction of area up to full refusal of him, and in the sense of some technological improvements, the introduction of appropriate filters, etc.
The presence blastomogenic hydrocarbon fumes caused a necessity of their definition in smoked food.
In smoked fish and sausages, you can find some small amount of 3,4-benzpyrene - from 1.9 to 10.5 mcg per 1 kg of the investigated product. In this regard develop such changes technologies smoked foods that would reduce or even eliminate blastomogenic of contaminants in food (application smoke liquids). There is a second way to prevent tumors, which can be called clinical prevention. Numerous experimental studies have shown that cancer occurs not at once, that it is only the last link in the long chain of changes, which are called pre-cancerous or precancerous.
If each malignant tumor occurs not at once, but gradually, from certain precancerous changes, the early recognition and treatment of precancer (see) will terminate the chain evolving process, i.e. will be a way to prevent cancer.
In this respect, of great importance such activities as systematic preventive examination and clinical examination of wide layers of the population or of certain industrial groups, which resulted in the transition frequency of precancerous growths in cancer are reduced significantly.