Tumours of the rectum

Cancer of the rectum. Cancer of the rectum is often preceded by chronic ulcerative colitis, polyposis colorectal and chronic anal fistulas. These diseases of the rectum with a known legitimacy can be called precancerous.
To be precancerous diseases also include polypous expansion adenomatous nature: multiple polyposis and solitary polyps.
Colorectal cancer is 4-5% of all cancerous lesions and 80% lesions of the intestine, is found in different ages: from 10 to 80 years, but the most often - aged 40-60 years. Usually in the rectum is affected ampoule, at least - the top division and even more rarely - the area of the anus. Sometimes the tumor captures the rectum throughout it. In the ampulla of the rectum cancer occurs in the form of an ulcer with ragged infiltrated with a thick bottom and unevenly rising edges. Sometimes a ulcer covers the entire circumference of the intestine. Cancer of the anus grows sphincter, turning this Department into a rigid nastradamus up.
Symptoms of rectal cancer is different depending on the tumor location. In the initial period of the disease the symptoms may be absent.
According to the Institute of Oncology of AMS of the USSR (S. A. holding, 1962), 675 patients with cancer of the rectum asymptomatic met 3.5%.
In cancer of the anus appear blood in the stool, pain when urinating, and then outside it, and with the loss of sphincter contractility arise narrowing of the anus, incontinence and shortness of faeces. When cancer has spread to adjacent areas - crotch and urethra - there comes a difficulty with urination, urinary fistulas.
When the cancer location in the ampoule or in the upper part of the rectum one of the early symptoms is the admixture of blood to the stool, and sometimes significant bleeding with fast growing tumors.
Pain in the rump, indicate the transition of tumors on the sacral plexus. When cancer ampoules and the upper section of the rectum during the initial period there is a change diarrhea constipation and appear tenesmus.
In cases circle of cancer of the upper section of the rectum are observed constipation. Gradually evolving phenomenon obstruction first Kala, and then and gases. With the development of ulceration of the tumor join fever, chills, weight loss and depletion. In this stage of colorectal cancer can be discovered metastases in the liver ascites.
Diagnosis of colorectal cancer begins with a finger her research. The latter enables to establish the presence of ulcers, polyps, or tumors not only in the anal canal, but in the ampulla of the rectum to the height of 12 cm from the anus. If producing digital examination of the rectum in the position of the patient squatting, you can feel and located slightly above the tumor. The following technique to study the rectum is rectoskopia that allows to check the tumor at a height of up to 25-30 cm from the anus.
Treatment - radical surgery to obtain: 1) the largest percentage of recovery, 2) the lowest percentage of mortality and 3) the restoration of the closing function of the intestine.
If it is impossible to keep the trailing apparatus of the rectum (with lower location of a tumor is amputation of the rectum, together with a closing device, and then the sigmoid colon is displayed in the left iliac region and creates unnatural anus.
Sarcoma of the rectum is a rare disease and occurs in 0.5% of all malignant tumors of the rectum. The average age of the patients was 45 years.
These tumors originate from submucosal layer of the colon, and sometimes muscle and subserous layer and sometimes reach considerable size. Situated mostly in Anulare Department of the colon, they sometimes pull a long stem and when natureway fall out of the anus, easy upravljaci back. Histologically they are fibrosarcoma, myosarcoma, lymphosarcoma, angiosarcoma and neurogenic the sarcomas.
Differential diagnosis of sarcomas rectum rather difficult. Treatment - operative and is in the early radical surgery with removal of the affected Department intestine.
To non-epithelial malignant tumors of the rectum up to 1 % of all malignant neoplasms of colon, rectum include melanoblastoma. Unclear origin melanoblastoma and diversity of structures gave rise to a number of names it is always appropriate to the histogenesis of these tumors: melanocarcinoma, melanocarcinoma (S. A. holding, 1962). The main localize melanoblastoma is anorectal region. Of the anorectal area melanoblastoma pretty soon pass as in the crotch, and a vial of the rectum, develop rough tumor, protruding from under the mucous membrane of the anus or under the skin acoperisului region. Sometimes the tumor is becoming the mushroom, polypoid lesions. In the context of these tumors are grayish-black color. The acceleration of growth rate by melanoblastoma in the anorectal region promotes their constant trauma with the passage of feces.
Clinical symptoms melanoblastoma differ little from the symptoms of this area. Dissemination of the tumor occurs on blood and lymphatic pathways. Radical surgery with melanoblastoma rectum gives not very comforting results due to the early coming of metastases.
Benign tumors of the rectum. These include fibroids, fibroids, lipoma, angiomas, warty growths, dermoid cysts, polyps and polyposis. Of these benign tumors of the rectum not all have practical value.
In the prima ballerina of the colon, as in the colon, there are single and multiple polyps. It is considered that the polyps and polyposis of colon, rectum and colon, developed on the grounds of inflammatory processes in mucous chronic dysentery, chronic ulcerative the proktoshigmoidit. However, there are patients with polyps in the rectum occurred without any connection with inflammatory her defeats.
There is a transformation of the polyp in cancer. Hence arose a reasonable idea of what polyps and polyps of the colon are precancerous. Polyps on a thin stem generally considered to be benign neoplasms; polyps on a broad basis are precancer.
Clinical symptoms of rectal polyps can be very meager when polyps are small in size (up to 1 cm in diameter). With the growth of polyps appear mucus secretion, blood, tenesmus, constipation. Polyps on a long stalk at low location in the gut may fall out when urinating through the anus.
Diagnosis of polyps and colorectal cancer, passes all the stages from digital research to rectoscopy and radiological research.
Treatment with polyps on a long stalk is to trim them, and when polyps on a broad base - excision of them. When polyposis colon, resulting from chronic inflammatory processes (ulcerative colitis and other), treatment of choice is off the affected part of the colon by imposing unnatural anus. Then proceed to the local treatment of rectal polyps using electrocautery. If urgent biopsy deformed polyp is malignant, then is abdomino-perineal resection of the rectum with preservation of the closing of the device.