Benign tumors of the rectum

Benign tumors originate from the epithelium lining the rectum (adenomatous polyps), connective and muscular tissue fibroids, lipoma, myoma), and also vessels and nerves (angioma, neurinomas). These tumors are located in the thickness of the wall or hang in a gap in the form of dense polypoid growths. Foreign body sensation, increased the urge, the mucus, sometimes constipation - this is the clinical picture of the disease onset. Accelerated growth, decay, pitting the tumor may be suspicious about malignant its transformation. These tumors are available accomplish digital examination and rectoscopy, but to establish their true nature is possible only after microscopic examination.
Treatment of benign tissue and muscle tumors is their excision, and in the presence of elongated legs from mucous-submucous tissue is cut off with lacing grounds for hemostasis. Tumors of the big sizes, located high or vnutristennaya sometimes have to make resection of part of the rectum.
From benign epithelial tumors most attention should attract adenomatous polyps [synonym: villous tumor of the colon (tumor vilosus), papillary adenoma, adenopathy, polypoda adenoma]encountered quite often in the form of separate entities or multiple growths, which gives grounds to speak about polyposis rectum or even the entire colon. Meet and so-called false polypous education (pseudoprime); the basis of such "polyp" is fibrous or lymphoid tissue (pseudopolyposis lymphatica), covered unchanged mucous membrane. The emergence of adenomatous polyps of the rectum is connected with the violation of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial mucous membrane bowel. A significant role is played by a family predisposition to proliferative responses and education polypous growths mucosa (the so-called familial polyposis in several generations of the same family). Long-term chronic proctitis and practicality with the formation of ulcers and cicatrical changes in the wall of the intestine also often accompanied multiple polypous growths. Multiple polyposis, which affects simultaneously and other departments of the intestine, characterized by a prolonged debilitating diarrhea with weight loss and anemia. 10-15% of polyps turn into cancer. Some authors believe that from 60 to 90% of all cancers arise from polyps.
Polyps are relatively easy to recognize when the finger feeling and rectoscopy (Fig. 2). X-ray examination can identify and more highly located polyps. Biopsy clarifies the structure of polyps and the presence of signs of malignancy.
Treatment solitary polyps of the rectum is to cut off their electropedia or electrocautery through a proctoscope for the reception 1-2 (Fig. 3). Coagulate should not only wystawy in the lumen part of the polyp, but its base, where there may be pockets of proliferation. Produce histological examination of tissue removed.
At detection of signs of atypical and infiltrating growth must either take a broader intervention, either to strictly observe the patient in case of relapse to take more radical treatment.

Fig. 2. The gut polypus in the stage of malignancy (rectoskopia).
Fig. 3. Electrosurgical treatment of polyps in the rectum.

Malignant tumors