The principles of recognition and treatment of tumors

Diagnostics of tumors using routine clinical examination of patients, which includes x-ray, endoscopic, laboratory, morphological and chemical methods. Clinical experience and degree of Oncology training of the doctor are a significant factor in the recognition of O.
In clinical Oncology especially important early diagnosis of tumors, because the best results you can achieve in the initial stages. Diagnosis of many visceral form O. (pancreas, liver, lungs, kidneys, ovaries and other) in the early stages is objective difficulties due to weak intensity of their initial signs and very frequent absence of pain syndromes in the beginning of the disease. Many methods of laboratory diagnostics O., the so-called reaction "cancer", turned out to be non-specific, especially in the early stages of the disease, and did not materialize in practice.
The steady progress of x-ray diagnostics, achievements endoscopic, cytological and other methods of research has facilitated and improved the detection of bone tumors, lung, gastrointestinal tract, etc.; chest x-ray, CT scan, bronchoscopy, bronhografiya improved detection of lung cancer in the earlier stages. Gastroscopy, in combination with gastrobiopsy in some cases helps detect abnormal changes in the stomach and to distinguish malignancy from a benign polyp adenomatous polyps of the gastric mucosa. Cystoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, esophagoscopy you to explore the inner wall of the relevant bodies and to do a biopsy of suspicious for cancer sites. Significant progress was made in recognition of O. using cytological method, which is used to examine the slides with wounded surfaces, such as the cervix, tongue, various plagues, etc., or if the diagnostic puncture of bone tumours, etc. Cytological study of tumors or exudates cavities made technically correct, differ high reliability in the hands of experienced cytologists (80%). However, if negative data cytological research and evidence based clinical suspicion of cancer resort to excisional biopsy with urgent histological examination of tissue, which in most cases (90%) is significant (e.g. breast cancer).
In rare cases, when histomorphological research piece of Acting can meet diagnostic difficulties (for example, undifferentiated small cell lung cancer may be adopted by a pathologist for retikulosarkoma; primary ovarian cancer can be interpreted as a metastasis in the ovary). In such disputable cases where the clinical picture of the disease does not coincide with the conclusions of histomorphology, the conclusion of a Clinician is crucial.
If you suspect a tumor of internal organs (stomach, pancreas, lung, and so on) even at negative result of complex study of appropriate revision of the abdominal or thoracic cavity with urgent histological study Acting suspicious tissues; this way in most cases it is possible to resolve diagnostic difficulties.
Direct symptoms of internal organs in the initial period of development is poorly expressed, leading to a significant delay recognition O. and, of course, reduce the chances of recovery. Therefore, the use of indirect, non-permanent for tumor symptoms will help your doctor to find the right diagnostic decision. For example, when gipernefroidnyi kidney cancer may experience prolonged malaise, increasing weakness, fever up to the intermittent fever due to suction decay products About. So-called re atypical pneumonia is observed in lung cancer patients older than 50 years. The decline of appetite, unexplained fatigue, stomach discomfort is often reason enough to repeated x-ray study of the stomach or to hospitalization for thorough examination of the patient. Re thrombophlebitis (local or migrant), increasing the number of platelets (over 250 000-300 000 1 mm3 blood), acceleration ROHE up to 40 - 50 mm and above give reason to suspect a malignant tumor. Indirect signs are auxiliary, enabling the Clinician in some cases, the patient study in cancer direction.
We must remember that sometimes in stomach cancer may experience short-term subjective improvement in the condition of the patient is under the influence of conservative treatment conducted in the absence of reliable diagnosis or refusal of the patient from the operation.
Such methods of diagnostics, as the definition of tumor cells in peripheral blood from the diagnostic and prognostic purposes, the determination of the number of certain enzymes in the blood (for example, phosphatases for prostate cancer, some of bone tumors), immune response to cancer - are still in the development process. The most significant of these is the definition of acid phosphatase blood for prostate cancer, which gives positive results in the presence of metastases (cancer of the bone) and used to monitor progress of treatment.
In order to better and earlier identification of the Acting increasingly being conducted medical preventive examination of practically healthy people over the age of 30 years. This Wellness event is widely carried out in the USSR in the factories, factories, farms. Factories produce various chemical substances with possible carcinogenic properties (for example, in aniline dye production), preventive examinations of workers employed in harmful workshops, carried out repeatedly for several years. During the correctly organized and systematic mass preventive examinations tumors are detected in the amount of approximately 0.1% of the number of examined, and in 1% of all inspected detected precancerous lesions. The best results of preventive examinations achieved in visual forms (cancer of the skin, lip, mouth, cervix and other). Materials of who, in Canada for 8 years achieved a reduction in the incidence of clinically expressed cervical cancer by 45% in the segment of the population, which has about half of the women were subjected to regular preventive examinations. The who expert Committee in its report on cancer prevention States that cervical cancer can be prevented. Material prophylactic medical examination of population number of regions of the USSR (for example, the Volgograd region, the Leningrad, Moscow and others) shows that running visual forms of cancer now almost not observed.
It is generally accepted that in the early detection of cervical cancer valuable assistance has Cytology smears taken from the cervix. However, it should be noted that cytological method is not final in all cases. With suspected cancer of the internal organs of patients should be fast thorough examination and appropriate treatment in stationary conditions.