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Along with these blastomogenic by agents of the environment a great role in the origin of many tumors are playing internal factors - the possibility of endogenous blastomogenic substances and particular sensitivity of tissues to the carcinogenic effects. A vivid example of tumors caused by internal reasons which are the so-called dishormonal growths caused by the imbalance of hormones, such as tumors of the breast, uterus, ovaries, pituitary, adrenal glands, prostate and thyroid gland.
The accumulated scientific evidence about the tumors help identify two ways of preventing them: 1) prevention of their occurrence and 2) prevention of their development.
The first of these paths is based on the information blastomogenic agents in the human environment. Reducing contact with radioactive products of aniline-dye industry leads to a decrease in the incidence of cancer of the bladder. Currently cancer radiologists, cancer chimney sweeps and some other professional cancer virtually disappeared due to the change of working conditions, the introduction of new technology, protective measures and personal hygiene, which contributed to the elimination of effect on the organism blastomogenic agents. These facts prove that the principal possibility of cancer prevention. So, systematic efforts to reduce pollution of the inhaled air by man is the path to the prevention of lung cancer. This includes the fight against Smoking.
The second way of prevention of tumors based on timely detection and cure of the processes that precede them, i.e., precancerous and precancerous lesions (see the Precancer). This is facilitated systematic mass preventive examinations of the population, which are widely used in the USSR. As a result of such examinations tumors detected in approximately 0.1%, and a variety of precancerous diseases of about 1% of the surveyed people over 30-40 years.
Early detection of tumors and promotes health education, distribution among the population of information about the signs of the onset of the disease and the need for immediate treatment to a doctor.
The organization and carrying out preventive examinations, especially in rural areas, a large role can play trained paramedics working on a paramedic stations. They should carry out preparatory work, inviting the population on examinations and directing patients to a doctor when incurred suspected cancer. They can also actively participate in the taking of vaginal smear for Cytology for suspected cervical cancer.
The basis of diagnostics of tumors are x-ray, endoscopic, Cytology, and more importantly, a thorough clinical examination. The most precise method of tumor diagnostics - biopsy (see). In the case of transactions suspected cancer urgent patologicheskoi study during the operation, the results of which determine the size of the intervention and the subsequent treatment.
In the diagnosis of malignant tumors, it is important to establish not only the nature but also the stage of the disease.