Peculiarities of labor activities and the complex characteristics of the health of persons of pre-pension and pension age


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In each case is developed questionnaire, covering the main activities that are characteristic of those in this occupational category (A., Zdravomyslov and others, 1967; B. A. Poisons, 1968; A. A. Zvorykin, 1970; D. P. kaydalov, I. E. Suimenko, 1974, and others). Proper preparation of questionnaires-cards surveys, obligatory account of the peculiarities of work, conditions and regime of work, production load, its density and strength, the study of labor on the background of the specific hygienic conditions disclose the actual labour activity of each person. Note that for persons of pre-pension and pension age actual labour activity is connected with such insignificant at first sight, things as psychological microclimate in the production team, psychological mood and overall production. In maps, survey composed for this contingent should be provided clarification of these points. Grouping, analysis and evaluation of the questionnaire and survey materials is desirable to carry out by means of counting and tabulating and computing machines with the use of exact mathematical methods.
To study the mode of the day, the regime of work and time budget designed questionnaire, cards of different types. In particular, the study of the regime of a number of questionnaires designed so that they immediately require the subject to unite in one band and to describe in General the numbers for a day or business day the cost and time to a separate regime moments. Following this method, you must remember how much time is allocated to a particular type of exercise and summarize this time in a homogeneous group. Therefore, it is suggested to calculate the duration of the various aspects of the regime during the day, week, month. This padding is subjective, very approximate and fraught with significant inaccuracies. However, surveys of large groups of people, determining the cost of the times" on specific regime moments this method is convenient and is fully justified.
There is a method of studying time budget by the moment of observation. The most complete and adequate understanding of the time budget can be obtained by using questionnaires in which the records produced in chronological order. Entire daily budget is placed in a calendar day, and the registration time regime moments are consistent. After such record is identical regime moments (spent their time) and put grouped depending on the purpose of work. Based on these data, fill in special form, which is the raw material for statistical development.
The questionnaires are arranged chronologically close to the normal distribution of time - during the day (rise, the morning toilet and so on). In the course of the issues include several (4-5) empty (more) graph in which each filling the questionnaire can make a special regime moments.
Filling of cards of the time budget is carried out either the pre-trained persons, or by self-registration, samotorova. In the environment of pupils, officers, technical officers and other competent people latter method is more acceptable. Previously conducted an oral briefing on the purpose of work, the rules of keeping records of fixed sensitive points that should be reflected in the map. When filling out cards to ensure greater reliability of the data requires constant monitoring.
The results of the timing of labour of persons of different occupational groups has allowed to establish that the mental work of manufacturing engineers, which is characterized by the change of activity during the working day and high physical activity, less tiring than the efforts of the people of the administrative apparatus, which is characterized by a relative (form) the monotony of work and significant hypokinesia. This is more pronounced decrease of efficiency in the end of the day, the worst health status and greater incidence, particularly among workers 40 years of age and older (N. B. Mankovsky and others, 1976).