Peculiarities of labor activities and the complex characteristics of the health of persons of pre-pension and pension age


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Professional performance by its nature is a multidimensional object, and any generalizing assessment is obviously distorted and incomplete, because it uses only a small portion of the information which is reflected in the comprehensive description of the object. Integrated assessment is a numerical measure specified in the multidimensional space of characteristics of the studied object or phenomenon. The quantification approach occupational health may be the use of the basic principles of information theory, which allows to study not specific, and only the information content of a message that can be quantified (Schannon, 1948; U. Ashby, 1958; Wiener, 1968).
Integral assessment contains more information about the object or phenomenon, the more closely interconnected characterizing the object characteristics. However, the nature of the close relationship between characteristics there are rare. More often the signs are small dependence or she is so complex that its detection requires a lot of studies (this is the case when" an integrated assessment of occupational health).
However, the need for an integrated assessment is great. Accurate quantification of health is associated with serious difficulties. Manifestations of reduced performance under different works can be diverse and relate to the quantity, quality, depending on the nature of the coordination of the processes associated with its implementation. All this eliminates the possibility of developing a universal test performance, suitable for all occasions.
A criterion the degree of impact of production activities, in particular for older persons of working age, is the functional state of the organism, formed mainly under the influence of work, conditions of work and age.
In an integrated assessment of professional health must take into account neravnopravnost influence determining its components.
A number of physiological parameters increasingly characterizes the General condition of the body; their change depends largely on the age and state of health. Other indicators are changed in connection with the respective type of activity and experience.
During labour activity, not related to excessive tension of the organs and systems and frequent stress, physiological functions change little. The rate of change of health, particularly among the elderly, is characterized not only functional changes in the body, but also the possibility of long-term maintenance of these shifts at the optimal level. The peculiarity of the organism when work is unstable, of the variability of physiological functions that during working days of transition from state corresponding to the relative calm, in a working condition, from a condition of high workability in a state of fatigue, repair, training.
The research results more convincing if they are conducted on production, without violating the labour process and elaborated the person dynamic stereotype. However, these conditions are impossible. In the study on the production of their rhythm is almost always broken.
Psychophysiological functions, which carry the main load in the specific work for many years, are subject to continuous training, so at first, despite the tiredness, may not be changed and are manifested only in cases of severe fatigue. Inferiority less trained functions can be detected earlier. Physiological parameters in humans depend on the specifics of the higher nervous activity, mental, heredity, associative relationships, which arise as the acquisition of professional experience, etc.
For each particular type of employment, the value of physiological functions and socio-hygienic conditions characterizing professional performance, not the same. In the comprehensive assessment of efficiency, taking into account the different changes in different social, physiological and hygienic parameters, it is necessary in each case to consider the degree of their significance.