Smallpox was known to mankind since ancient times. Violent epidemic of this severe disease took millions of human lives and sometimes led to the disappearance of entire populations. It is estimated that in Europe until the second half of the XIX century died from smallpox at least 150 million people. The disease struck almost all, starting from the early childhood. In the XVIII century in major European cities, half the population had to face with the signs transferred smallpox - pox scars. Old German proverb reads: "smallpox and love remain free only a few".
In 1796, English physician Edward Jenner discovered opepreveria. This remarkable discovery has armed the faithful mankind, radical remedy against smallpox. The widespread use of opepreveria led to a sharp decline, as in many countries, and to eliminate the incidence of this infection.
In tsarist Russia opepreveria was not mandatory and was organized very poor. A significant part of the population, especially in the far provinces, was not covered by immunization. As a result, in pre-revolutionary Russia smallpox was a regular phenomenon. So, shortly before the first world war, in 1910, was registered 165 thousand patients with smallpox.
In 1919 Century I. Lenin signed a decree on compulsory opepreveria. In the first years of Soviet power vigorously carried out a mass vaccination has led to a sharp decline in the incidence of smallpox. In 1936 smallpox in the Soviet Union was liquidated. Currently, the incidence of smallpox not registered also in all the countries of people's democracy and all developed capitalist countries. Still, however, in several countries of Asia, Africa and South America smallpox still widespread. For 1950-1963, on earth, there were more than 2 million of this disease infection, in 1963-1969, annually were recorded (and far incomplete) from 54 000 to 133 000 cases of smallpox.
The causative agent of smallpox - filterable virus. The source of infection is a sick person who is contagious from the first day of the disease and to the moment of the fall pox crusts.
Infection occurs mainly through the air and less frequently through various items that were in the environment of the patient.
High susceptibility to smallpox is peculiar to a person from the first months of life. That is why, when among the population were almost always the source of infection is a sick smallpox, most had time to recover from her already in childhood. Smallpox wore then the nature of pediatric infectious disease. After smallpox, as a rule, got to her immunity.
Smallpox starts suddenly, violently: temperature rises rapidly to 39-40-41°, rapidly deteriorating General condition of the patient, have a severe headache, pain in the rump, and often vomiting; in the most severe cases, there are blackout, delirium, and other disorders of the nervous system.
By the 4th day of illness, the temperature slightly lower, and improves the patient's condition. At the same time is a rash, which within 2 days covers the skin of the whole body. The rash consists of numerous rounded plotnosti to the touch Uzelkov the size of a lentil. By the 6th day of illness nodules turn into bubbles that to 8-9-th day of illness filled purulent content. Skin swollen and red. His face was distorted beyond recognition. Precipitation is observed in the mucous membranes of the mouth that causes pain when swallowing, and increased salivation.
General condition of the patient simultaneously with suppuration pox bubbles rapidly deteriorating: re fever, signs of a broad poisoning, nervous system disorders and various organs. You may experience various complications, further aggravating the condition of the patient and often a cause of his death. In young children smallpox is difficult and often leads to death.
Extremely severe is the so-called hemorrhagic smallpox, accompanied by bleeding in the skin and mucous membranes. Ospen bubbles while filled with bloody contents and become almost black color. In the people this form of the disease called black smallpox. In the old days, the disease is almost always ended in death, to provoke a panic.
The recovered remained generally for life numerous pox scars - ryabinki. Often observed such serious consequences of the disease, as blindness, deafness and other
Smallpox eradication is a great achievement in medical science, which it can be proud of, was the result of extensive and systematic use of opepreveria in our country.
Opepreveria - radical remedy against smallpox. It creates reliable protection against this disease. In the end of XVIII century English physician Jenner became interested in traditional observations, establishing a connection between the incidence of milkmaids cow pox and further their resistance to natural human smallpox.
Jenner has conducted numerous experiments and found that artificial inoculation cowpox man gives him light a local process on the skin at the site of inoculation and tells him immunity to smallpox.
Modern smallpox vaccine, which provides the material for vaccinations, prepared as follows. On thoroughly decontaminated skin a healthy calf or cows make multiple surface notches, rubbing the smallpox vaccine. After a few days the animal appears enormous amount of bubbles. Scraping these bubbles after special treatment and serves as a material for vaccinations.
Currently, our country is widely used advanced dry smallpox vaccine, which is diluted before use. She has a great advantage in comparison with liquid vaccine, as it saves their activity significantly longer.
In the USSR vaccination is carried out children on 13-18 months of life. The vaccine is produced in the skin of his shoulder, which carefully decontaminated. Applied to the skin small droplets of the vaccine and make the surface of a notch. This procedure is almost painless, it is well tolerated by young children.
After successfully produced smallpox vaccinations on the 3-4th day on the ground, which was caused by the vaccine, there are small nodules. They gradually rise into the bubbles that to the 9-th day from the moment vaccinations are filled purulent content. These pockmarks very similar to the elements rash of smallpox. However, if the smallpox is abundant precipitation throughout the body, with severe General reaction of the body, when vaccination appear only 2-3 pockmarks on the spot produced cuts. The development of immunization winced accompanied by rise of temperature up to 38 degrees (rarely above) in a few days and moderate violation of the General conditions.
In the result of the vaccination, the child acquires complete immunity to smallpox for several years. Gradually this immunity is lost. In order to maintain immunity to smallpox at the appropriate level, produce a booster vaccination at the age of 8, 15 years and then every 5-7 years. When re-vaccination vaccination reaction is much less apparent and less long than at vaccinated for the first time.
Before vaccination of the child should buy. Swimming is allowed and in the first three days after vaccination. With the development of immunization pock marks, i.e., 4-th day, the child should be carefully washed, trying not to wet the vaccination site. Bandage on grafted hand is not recommended. You must ensure that the nail on the child's hands were cut short and he never combed vaccination bubbles.
When the scratching bubbles are damaged and in them can be entered infection can result in severe sepsis, erysipelas and other complications. Combing the site of the injection, the child may enter and RUB content vaccination winced in other areas of the skin, and there will be new opinci. The danger of such transfer grafting material for skin diseases, accompanied by severe itching, especially when weeping eczema. In these cases may develop so-called vaccination eczema is a very serious complication. This complication may occur and without vaccination, the child suffering from eczema, if he is in close contact with the mother or other persons vaccinated. Therefore children who have weeping eczema and other skin itchy rash, opepreveria contraindicated until recovery. Temporarily postponed vaccinated children with fever and other diseases. A question about the presence of contraindications decided by the doctor. In the vast majority of contraindications to opepreveria are temporary. After recovery vaccine is produced at the direction of a physician.
Subject contraindications to vaccination and thorough implementation of the rules of care of the grafted child vaccination reaction, usually uneventful and opepreveria is safe.
In the USSR smallpox eradicated but in some allied countries up to now, this disease is significantly extended. Smallpox can be brought to us from abroad, and then the persons, who are vaccinated against smallpox was not carried out, are at great risk of infection.
So, about smallpox should not be forgotten, otherwise she can severely remind yourself. Yet the time has come to abandon the smallpox vaccination is this strong arms, brought a victory over one of the most terrible diseases. But the day will come when opepreveria, exemplary conducted in all countries of the world, will lead to the ultimate elimination of this disease around the globe. Then there will be necessity of vaccination against this disease. But a grateful mankind will never forget about this wonderful victory of medical science and the Creator of the method opepreveria - Edward Jenner.