Opepreveria

Opepreveria - create immunity against smallpox through the introduction of the smallpox vaccine.
In the USSR vaccination against smallpox routinely performed for all citizens, without contraindications. Vaccination (see) is for children aged 10 - 12 months; by vaccination in older age simultaneously with the vaccine is given a single dose of smallpox gamma globulin. Revaccination is carried out at the age of 8 and 15 years, and then every 5-7 years (up to 50 years). In areas of the border with troubled on smallpox countries, children revaccinated at the age of 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. Every 3 years revaccinate: health workers and disinfection institutions; the adult population of threatened areas, staff sea ports, airports, railway stations, hotels in the cities, through which the international transport communications.
At planned opepreveria contraindications: infectious diseases (vaccinations are held not earlier than 2 months, and at epidemic hepatitis is not earlier than 6 months. after recovery); tuberculosis in the active phase; diseases of the blood and lymphatic system; diabetes; nephritis; diseases of liver, skin, cardiovascular system; rheumatism; allergies; asthma; eczema; exudative diathesis; rickets and malnutrition; malignant neoplasms; pregnancy; spazmofiliya; epilepsy; hydrocephalus; mental illness.
Children smallpox vaccination and re-vaccination is conducted for 2 months. before or after 2 months. after vaccination against other diseases; adults-15 days before or after 15 days after vaccination against other diseases. The vaccine is not recommended in the hot season.
With the threat of the spread of smallpox are vaccinated: all citizens of the city (district, region), regardless of the timing and results of previous smallpox vaccination; all the children from two weeks of age, and in the presence of close contact with patients with smallpox - from the first days of life. If vaccination is dangerous for health, prevention of smallpox is gamma globulin.
It is prohibited to conduct vaccination at home. Before opepreveria doctor (medical assistant) examines the inoculated with obligatory thermometry. Ampoules with smallpox vaccine (see) and solvent wipe ether or 70% alcohol, and then opened. The solvent is injected into the vial of vaccine with a sterile pipette and stir the contents sterile glass rod. The vaccine raise immediately before immunization. The dissolved vaccine is not used during the working day, destroy.
The vaccination site serves as the outer surface of the shoulder slightly below the shoulder joint. The skin is cleaned with a sterile cotton wool soaked ether or 70% alcohol (do not use iodine, carbolic acid and other disinfectants). After drying alcohol (ether) vaccine caused by vaccination in two places at revaccination in three places at least 2 cm from each other. In places of application of a vaccine to produce a single linear nekroliticescoe cuts a length of 0.5 cm and a vaccine gently scrub in place of cuts. The surface of the skin dries within 5-10 minutes
On 4-5 day on the site of the injection appear redness, swelling, papules, on 6-7-th day - vesicles, on 8-9-th day - pustules followed by the formation of crusts, which remain scars. Records of the results of vaccination is performed on 7-8-th day after vaccination. Vaccination is considered positive in the development of at least one pustules. In case of negative result of vaccination should be repeated on the other hand in the day of the inspection. Records of the results of revaccination is done on 4-5-th day after vaccination. Revaccination is considered positive when development on the site of the injection papules, vesicles, pustules or erythema and induration. In case of negative result of re-vaccination is repeated on the other hand in 5-7 days.
In addition to local reactions, vaccinations against smallpox sometimes are a common reaction. Increased body temperature up to 38-40 degrees; noted malaise, headache, lymphadenitis, loss of appetite. When opepreveria possible severe complications: generalized smallpox, vaccination eczema, allergic rashes, post-vaccination encephalitis and other severe local and General reactions to the vaccine, particularly when complications, it is recommended that the introduction of the smallpox gamma globulin intramuscularly in doses of 0,5 - 1 ml per 1 kg of body weight in a few days. Cm. also Immunization.

Opepreveria - active immunization against smallpox.
From 20-s of the 18th century opepreveria relatively widely used in Europe. During the first vaccination against smallpox - the so-called violaci - for immunization have used material from patients (scabs, liquid vesicles and others). There was observed a serious complications epidemiological and clinical data (sometimes appeared severe disease, increased the number of potential sites of infection). In 1796, Jenner (E. Jenner) showed that the natural human infection cow pox or grafting of this material protects from smallpox disease.
A new method of opepreveria - vaccination - turned out to be much safer than variatsii. First, the material for vaccination was taken from the vesicles udder then began to previati the virus from person to person. Using humanized vaccine seriously limited because of the potential distribution of some infectious diseases, especially of serum hepatitis. In this regard, the most important development of methods of preparation of standard dermolectine by passage of the virus on the calves.
Currently, the smallpox vaccine (see)obtained from calves, is a dry preparation containing the virus vaccine.
Vaccination against smallpox is held in the USSR in order mandatory scheduled vaccinations, and epidemic indications. The decree on compulsory opepreveria was published by the Council of people's Commissars of the RSFSR in 1919 Vaccinated only in medical institutions (polyclinics, outpatient clinics, medical facilities of schools, kindergartens and other) doctors and paramedical personnel under the supervision of doctors. In accordance with the instruction primary vaccination is carried out for children in the first year of life, better at the age of 9-12 months. re-vaccinated at the age of 4, 7-8, 12 and 18 years.
Vaccinium all persons, without contraindications, which include diseases of the cardiovascular system (decompensated heart diseases, hypertension II and III stage, stenocardia and other); internal organs (hepatitis, nephritis, afrosamurai and others); acute infectious diseases (influenza, pneumonia, tonsillitis, dysentery and other); allergic (rheumatism, bronchial asthma expressed by the manifestation of excudative diathesis); skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis, impetigo, furunkoulez in the period of exacerbation); diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (anemia, leukemia and other); diabetes spazmofilii, dystrophy, tuberculosis in the period of severe intoxication, pregnancy.
The immunization is performed in a separate, specially adapted rooms of medical institutions in compliance with the rules of aseptics and antiseptics in accordance with the existing guidance. First prepare grafting material, which in a vial with dry vaccine sterile pipette, introduce a solvent. After that, the contents of capsules mix sterile instrument.
Vaccine do on the skin of the outer surface of the shoulder. First, carefully wipe the skin with alcohol or ether; when it is dry, put two drops of the vaccine (in 2 sm from each other) in primary immunization and three drops at revaccination. Sterile instrument (the Lancet, needle) in the skin are doing double linear and parallel cuts of 0.5, see Incisions must be superficial and not bleed. After that grafting material gently scrub the same tool in applied scarification. The vaccination site is left open for 5-10 minutes prior to the drying of the vaccine. After each vaccination tool boil.


Opepreveria accompanied by local and General reactions. On 4-5 day at the vaccination site appears inflammatory reaction (redness, swelling, papules). Through 1 - 2 days papules turn into vesicles, and then in the pustules, which dry up, turning into a scab. Vaccination is considered positive if on 7-8-th day after vaccination pustules appear (see printing. table. to Art. "Vaccination disease", T. II, item 80, Fig. 3). Otherwise, vaccination is repeated by the same method, but on the other hand. If revaccination is negative, then the next vaccination is carried out through the year. When revaccination manifestations local vaccination reactions occur most often somewhat earlier, on 2-3rd day. In some cases local response is not limited to described phenomena and appear pronounced and widespread inflammatory process and lymphadenitis. In addition to local reactions, and sometimes there is a common reaction, manifested in the increase of temperature up to 38-40°, headache, loss of appetite, weakness.
When opepreveria can occur and complications: vaccination gangrene, vaccination eczema, generalized smallpox, autoinoculation, vaccine-induced meningoencephalitis. Vaccination gangrene is an extremely rare complication and is registered mainly in people with symptoms of hypogammaglobulinemia. Vaccination eczema is a severe disease with generalized rash; more likely to occur in vaccinated, eczema sufferers. Generalized very similar to smallpox vaccination eczema, but it affects people with healthy skin and is relatively easy. Autoinoculation is a relatively common complication, especially in children of early age. Vaccine-induced meningoencephalitis arise through 7-28 days after vaccination, are characterized by a variety of clinical course, sometimes fatal.
In severe local and General reactions to the vaccine, particularly when complications, it is recommended that treatment of specific gamma globulin, which is injected intramuscularly in doses of 0,5-1 ml per 1 kg of body weight.
Opepreveria, conducted a qualitative vaccine and exactly as instructed, creates in vaccinated expressed immunity to protect against the disease. Specific resistance appears already after 7 days after vaccination and stored for 3-7 years. However, vaccination immunity is relative as by the degree of intensity and duration of preservation. The duration of immunity in individuals varies widely (from several months to years). Known cases of the disease vaccinated, but they are rare - mostly in people, not revaccinating for many years. The severity of immunological restructuring people define with the help of skin reactions, as well as the study of antihemagglutinins in serum grafted Cm. also Immunization.