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Spine diseases (osteochondrosis)

Osteochondrosis as clinical disease is more common in athletes those sports where there is the constant overload of the spine caused by macro - and micro-injury, especially among weightlifters, wrestlers, rowers, athletes, gymnasts, acrobats, players, cyclists. According to Lugana (1973), 60 % of the damage falls to the lumbar, 30% in infants and 10 %for cervical. In the basis of osteochondrosis lies degenerative-dystrophic lesion of the intervertebral discs. These changes come at a high levels of physical activity, weight lifting, chronic trauma disks, metabolism disturbances.
The clinical picture depends on the form of the pathological process in the lumbar spine and its functional segments. So, in spondylolisthesis, when there osteochondrosis motor segment, common symptoms are pain in the lumbar region with irradiation in the leg. Experience the pain is usually associated with heavy lifting, prolonged work in an inclined position. This symptom according to F. Commandre et al. (1988), observed in 75% of cases, and in 99 % of cases the damage to intervertebral discs is localized in LV. In spondylolisthesis body LV observed violations of sensitivity on the rear surface of the femur, tibia and outer edge of the foot, is determined calf hypotrophy, there is no reflex with Achilles tendon; body LIV - pain, gipestesia and parestesia in the posterolateral the surface of the femur and tibia, rear foot and thumb, reduction of reflex with Achilles tendon; in spondylolisthesis body LIII - pain and reduction of sensitivity on the front of the thigh, the weakness of the quadriceps muscle of thigh, reduction of knee reflex, constantly positive symptom Lazega, You-sarmana and voltage long muscles back. In spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents are marked unspoken pain in the lumbar region after the physical culture and sports (wrestling, skiing), at long distance, night lumbar pain. In studies O. Century Malchenko (1973), I. L. Tager, I. S. Mazo (1979). F. Commandre et al. (1988) paid attention in school and sports doctors on the need for x-ray studies of the spine in children and adolescents coming into sports clubs and schools of higher sports skills to identify the initial manifestations of spine lesions.
Retraites (offset vertebra ago) is observed in persons aged 15 years and over. In this form occur secondary neurological symptoms up to compression of the spinal cord and the subsequent development of paresis, infringement of functions of pelvic organs. Raising even a small weight (5 kg) causes lower back pain, sharp restriction of mobility of the spine, up to a full block movements. Symptoms Lazega, Wasserman, Neri. Vertebrogenic and neurological symptoms retrolisthesis often accompanied by violations of the functions of internal organs. The x-ray visible wedge deformation of vertebral body. In these cases it is necessary to spare the damaged segment and do not assign exercise therapy. As pointed out by L. I. Tager and I. S. Mazo, pathological process in the spinal segments of the adult does not disappear, but only compensated. Reasons causing retraites are as at one time or chronic injury and overload segments of the spine (damage disk drives, the gap muscular-ligamentous apparatus, compression fractures).
In athletes, particularly involved in the fight, bar, sports gymnastics, acrobatics, often found osteochondrosis of the cervical spine in which the changed segments of the vertebrae have a negative impact on neuro-vascular lesions and blood supply of the brain. Compression of the vertebral artery and spinal nerve can cause a subluxation articular processes of the vertebrae, which is a characteristic clinical picture cervical radiculitis (cervical migraine).
The main clinical symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis. Paroxysmal headache often at night and in the morning, throbbing, shooting or arching nature with irradiation in the eye, the ear, in the zone, innerved of the trigeminal nerve that depend on the motion of the head with a clear localization of pain on one or both sides. Headache subluxation articular process forward arises from the fact that vertebral artery is pressed to the edge of the upper transverse hole and is irritation of the osteophytes cervical vertebrae of the vertebral artery and spinal nerve. Pain at the exit points of the trigeminal and occipital nerve, according to our data, mentioned in 70 % of cases. For detection of cervical subluxation articular process forward, contributing to the slowing down of blood flow in the vertebral artery syndrome (Kovacs), you need to make side the x-ray, with precise overlay of right-wing cross and articular processes of the cervical vertebrae on the left.