Osteophytes

osteophytes
Osteophytes thighs.

Osteophytes - various origin bone growth, resulting from the ossification (ossification) periosteum, ligaments or other surrounding bone tissue. Often osteophytes are asymptomatic and are revealed only in x-ray in the form of additional bone formations, located at the edges of the articular surfaces or other parts of the bones (Fig). X-ray picture of osteophytes different and depend on the phase of development. Osteophytes may develop due to injury, and when degenerative changes in the joints and spine, inflammatory processes in the bone and surrounding tissues and other diseases. For pain and impaired function shown remove osteophytes.

Osteophytes (from the Greek. osteon - bone and phyton - process) - different origin and clinical value of bone growth. Accordingly, the difference of the etiology and pathogenesis structure of osteophytes diverse: osteophytes compact bone, spongy bone, bone and cartilage, metaplastic etc. Thus, the term O. should be used only in combination with additional feature of origin, form, structure, location, and so on, there are basic types of O.
1. Post-traumatic osteophytes can be a result of damage to the various anatomical structures bones. In particular, at the turn of divisov bones in the formation of callus around the displacement of bone fragments and splinters can occur osteophytes (Fig. 1) the most different configuration. The combination of a fracture of the infectious process (osteomyelitis with an open fracture) further encourages the development O., in the formation of involving all elements of callus, but mainly periosteum in its productive cambium layer. O. post-traumatic origin usually have a compact structure, over time, however, can travelers.robots. Post-traumatic osteophytes can develop without violating the history of the bone in the lead only of periosteum with the subsequent ossification. Typical localization such O. - knee and elbow joints in the field condyles and Razmyslov, especially after dislocations with a margin of ligaments and breaks bags.

Fig. 1. Massive osteovit on the inner thigh, formed from elements of callus and inflammatory tissue after gunshot fracture.

2. Osteophytes degenerative origin is a very common expression of the degeneration of articular apparatus as General, involutive nature (senile arthrosis)and local - motivated local overloading any one of the joint. The pathogenesis of this sort Of. well studied: due to loss of elasticity of the cartilage Podhradie the bone surface, being able to overload, answer it by the formation of the first cartilage, then Kostenevich reactive formations. Such Acting as if framed articulate surfaces, being one of the main structural components of deforming arthrosis (Fig. 2). Anatomically they look messy fringe, radiologically - shaped beaks. Osteophytes in deforming arthrosis lead to the restriction of movements in the joints, but without bone ankylosauria. The exception is Acting, developing the degenerative changes in the spine (spondylosis deformans, deforming arthrosis). Such O. (Fig. 3) with the starting point of growth in the dock area longitudinal ligament of the vertebral bodies, compact reflex records them, articular processes of the bows, merging, lead to ankylosauria and loss of mobility separate mobile segments of the spine.

Fig. 2. Osteophytes in the area of joint surfaces of the bones of the knee joint in deforming arthrosis.
Fig. 3. Osteophytes on the vertebral bodies and articular processes in places with ankylosauria (arrow) in degenerative changes in the spine (materialmany the drug).
Fig. 4. Great periosteal osteovit ("spur") on the outer surface of the diaphysis for osteogenic sarcoma of the thigh.

3. To the development of osteophyte can lead to inflammatory processes, in particular osteomyelitis with the defeat of divisov, less metamizol bones. In the result of the penetration of necrotic masses of the medullar channel under the periosteum and later in the soft tissue defects (holes, purulent leakages) around perforating holes arise osteophytes of randomly Kostenevich productive elements of the periosteum - periosteal osteophytes. When the remission of inflammatory processes in the joints, provided some mobility of the bones in chronic granulating destructive arthritis on the edges of the articular surfaces can develop marginal expansion type O. (chronic artresources when brucellosis, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis).
4. Massive osteophytes are developing in many malignant bone tumors. At the break osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing tumors through the periosteum in the soft tissues are formed typical periosteal O., radiographically having a form of visor, spurs (Fig. 4) and is an important diagnostic feature. Some benign tumors, in particular osteochondroma and systematic violations of encontrarnos growth (multiple exostosis) are formed O. spongy structure. Development O. can lead and some of metastatic tumors, in particular osteosclerotic metastasis of prostate cancer and breast cancer. In these cases, Acting primarily develop on the vertebral bodies, scallops Ilium.
5. Osteophytes can be formed and some systemic changes in the skeleton on the grounds of endocrine disorders. So, if acromegaly entire outer relief bones sharply exaggerated, and in many physiological roughness and scallops (nail on the phalanges, sciatic hillocks, Vartely thighs etc) are detected bone proliferate type O.
6. Some osteoarthropathy neurogenic origin, in particular the spinal cord the " dryness", can be accompanied by the development O. as a result of disorderly bone formation on the grounds of violation of the nervous trophism.
Development, course and clinical significance of osteophytes varies depending on the pathogenesis of the calling process. Traumatic Acting over time can be modeled accordingly functional loads (muscle pull) and to change its shape. O. arise out of inflammatory processes (osteomyelitis), can be very slow to assimilate due to thickening of the cortical bone regeneration and periosteum.
Diagnostic value for the x-ray detection Acting is great enough, however, on the precondition decrypt Genesis: without this diagnosis "osteovit" has no clinical value. Essential in explaining the type of O. have localization, the state of the bone, serving CSOs base, form, structure, paths, etc., a Comprehensive assessment of these data usually gives the opportunity to determine the nature of osteophyte.
In most cases, osteophytes are asymptomatic and does not require treatment. However, in some cases, the presence of persistent pain or movement disorders shown surgery (removal of O.).