The osteosclerosis

The osteosclerosis - seal bone structure, accompanied by thickening and increases in bone beams in a unit volume of the bone. On radiographs the osteosclerosis appears as foci of various shapes and sizes melkoyacheistoyi structure up to the full fuzzy bone figure, thickening and uneven contours of the cortical layer.
The osteosclerosis occurs respectively areas of destruction of bone tissue in inflammatory processes - osteomyelitis, syphilis, tuberculosis and other diseases.
The osteosclerosis may also be the anomaly of development (see Osteodysplastic), in these cases, it has a widespread or systematic.

The osteosclerosis (from the Greek. osteon - bone and sklerosis - seal - seal bones because of excessive bone formation.
X-ray examination is the only method lifetime definition osteosclerosis, its location, extent, severity, type and nature, and often of nature.
On technically perfect x-ray structural picture of the bone in the osteosclerosis becomes thicker: separate bone trabeculae thicken, their number grows, the network of the spongy substance becomes scopelliti, all bone gets reduced transparency in relation to any x-rays. When more pronounced O. when the bone becomes macroscopically homogeneous, "ivory", cortical substance thickens medially, spongy substance turns into a compact structure, and net figure disappears altogether. Bone hardens, loses its specific differentiated picture and becomes homogeneous.
Radiographically, one can observe a number of different nosological forms About. It can be congenital or acquired; divided into spotty and uniform (Fig. 1). Typical spotted osteosclerosis occurs when one of the system congenital skeletal diseases - osteopenia (see). At marble disease (see) focuses O. scattered in bands, which are oriented longitudinally and more often cross, but usually different uniform and diffuse distribution in the affected areas of the skeleton.

Fig. 1. Uniform and diffuse osteosclerosis tibia in chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis.
Fig. 2. Limited osteosclerosis tibia around purulent that emerged after the open fracture.

Localization and volume defeat the osteosclerosis can be local, limited, widespread and systematic. Limited O. (Fig. 2) most often reactive, develops on the border between healthy bone and some chronic inflammatory foci. That is, for example, Acting under the so-called sclerosing ostite or osteomyelitis, syphilis, and rarely with diaphyseal tuberculosis. Limited O. skirts the wall cavity with chronic abscess Brodie. Well-known Acting, due to the static-mechanical reasons when the so-called pathological phenomena rebuild bones, for example sclerosing sacroiliac.
Common osteosclerosis captures the bones of one or more limbs. He observed when memorialize Leri in the form of a very characteristic of flows on one side of the large and small bones of one limb. Most often it is seen with Paget's disease and mainly with osteoplastic form metastatic cancer of the skeleton.
Especially big role in modern clinic belongs to the x-ray system Acting as he polyetiological, can be seen in the wide variety in the nature of disease, therefore, required complex deployed comprehensive differential diagnosis.
The osteosclerosis leads to a reduction of the mechanical properties of bone, reduce their elasticity and therefore is the reason of their abnormal fragility, although the appearance of bones when Acting in the x-ray image creates a false impression about their fortress. The healing of fractures O. occurs most often with little deviation from the norm in normal time.
Pathological anatomy. The essence of pathological changes in the osteosclerosis is that in a compact disc, a new bone tissue accumulates on anastasiou, and sometimes periosteal surface and on the walls gaverova channels that sharply reduced (Fig. 3). The result is a compact disc hardens and thickens. In the cancellous bone accumulates on the surface of bone structures, leading to the formation of new bone beams. These processes result in a narrowing of bone marrow spaces.
Macroscopically bone acquire compact structure, become very dense, sawing on the uniform, reminding "ivory".
Microscopic examination of newly formed bone tissue is a normal different ways calcified bone structures (hrabouskaia, long-staple fibers, lamellar bone) or pathological bone, which has a peculiar structure, typical for this disease (marble disease, osteomielite). In some cases, the osteosclerosis associated with the formation of osteodes tissue (see Rickets, Osteomalacia).

Fig. 3. Sharp narrowing gaverova channels.