Acute intestinal infections

Acute intestinal infections are common infectious diseases that affect primarily gastrointestinal tract. In this regard, the major manifestations of these infectious diseases are disorders of the functions of the intestine: diarrhea, often vomiting and General intoxication. These infections are especially often struck by the growing child's organism. Among infectious diseases in children they are in frequency on one of the first places.
Recently achieved a significant reduction in the incidence of intestinal infections. However, the rate of decline compared to other infectious diseases slowed down. Besides there are significant progress in reducing mortality from intestinal infections. It resulted to improve living conditions of the population, improvement of the methods of treatment and the entire system of care for patients.
The causes of these diseases are microbes, which has expressed boleznennostew, and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, pathogenic properties that occur only under certain conditions, reduce the body's resistance. It is the body of a small child (especially in the year of age)who do not have well-developed defense mechanisms, is often a victim of conditionally pathogenic microbes.
The group of intestinal infections are numerous. Among the diseases that affect children, the largest value currently have dysentery and so-called coli infection, or kalenteri.
Dysentery. The causative agent of infection are dysenteric microbes, having the form of small sticks. They have several different types, which differ not only in their biological properties, but in its pathogenicity.
The source of infection are sick of this infection, both children and adults. Considerable danger as other infections are sick lightest forms of dysentery, which carry her on his feet. Well known is the role and the carriers of activators - healthy people (regardless of the age at which the infection is not manifested any signs. The mode of transmission of the pathogen from patients and carriers of healthy people in all intestinal infections is approximately the same. It is described in the General part of the brochure.
The essence of the disease is to defeat thick guts, where and settle dysentery bacteria. Toxic products of their decay and impaired metabolism common cause poisoning of the body, which largely determines the severity of the disease.
The incubation period of the disease lasts from 2 to 7 days. The disease begins by malaise, fever, often vomiting; the most pronounced and permanent symptom is diarrhea is frequent loose stools. In the faeces, marked the admixture of mucus and sometimes blood in veins or small inclusions in mucous mass. The stool frequency depends on the severity of the disease, sometimes reaching 20-30 or more times a day. Patients concerned about abdominal cramps, on which small children react cry. Bowel movement usually accompanied by painful straining effort.
Violation of the child's condition is connected with the General intoxication of various degrees. It is especially expressed in toxic form of dysentery and is expressed in the suppression of the nervous system, and the signs of dehydration. The patient depressed, listless; his face was haggard, his eyes sunken, look dim; the skin is dry, flabby, language, and mucous membrane of the mouth dry. Frequent persistent vomiting, Consciousness of the patient usually darkened. Cardio-vascular weakness; limbs become cold, bluish. Dysentery, accompanied by severe intoxication, in the absence of urgent medical aid can result in death.
Along with this heinous form of dysentery often light, erased form, manifested in the small bowel disorder, without obvious violations of the child's condition.
In the absence of treatment, or if incorrect, started late or incomplete treatment of the disease can be prolonged, chronic course. Long-term treatment of dysentery also contributes to the presence of concomitant diseases (rickets, chronic diseases of respiratory organs, depletion and others). Chronic dysentery may result in a significant depletion of the child.
For dysentery may atacata various complications, of which the most frequent pneumonia, ear, the defeat of the urinary tract. The accession of complications worsens the condition of the child and contributes to a protracted illness.
At the stage of recovery of the child's body weakened and is especially sensitive to the effects of different harmful factors and, in particular, to violations of the food regime. After suffering dysentery some children of the relatively long time continue to isolate the causative agent. Due to the presence of various types of dysentery bacteria and weak immunity after infection, the child may be sick with dysentery several times.

Escherichia coli infection, or kalenteri, called Escherichia coli. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine. Only under special circumstances it may be pathogenic. Pathogenicity especially pronounced in certain varieties of this organism. These pathogenic types of E. coli show their boleznennostew mainly in the organism of children of early age (the first year, especially the first months of life). They can be in the intestines of the child, not causing any symptoms of the disease, and to show their boleznennostew only by reducing the resilience of the child's body, taking place under the influence of various debilitating factors. But most pathogenic types of E. coli are transferred from other people (patients, media) the same ways as in other intestinal infections. Under adverse health conditions in the children's team coli infection can take the nature of the outbreak.
The incubation period of Escherichia coli infection lasts 3-6 days. The disease is characterized by lesions mostly small intestines. The disease usually begins acutely, vomiting, frequent liquid, watery stools, sometimes with an admixture of mucus; in some patients were fever and symptoms of intoxication. In severe cases of intoxication may be accompanied by severe dehydration, to manifest signs, characteristic for heavy toxic dysentery. The disease often has an undulating course with periods of improvement, changing new exacerbations of symptoms. Possible complications of pneumonia, otitis media, and other diseases.
Treatment of intestinal infections, even in mild course, must be conducted on the instructions of the doctor. The earlier the treatment starts, the more reliable its success. The best results are given treatment in a hospital; in severe toxic forms successful treatment is possible only in the hospital.
At the first sign of an intestinal disorder in children should immediately consult a doctor. Before the arrival of the doctor it is recommended to skip one, and in the deterioration of the General condition - two feeding. Thus it is necessary to drink of the child. Ensuring plentiful drink in intestinal infections in children due to significant losses of fluid is important therapeutic measure. In severe cases of repeated vomiting and severe dehydration occurs a need intravenous fluid that is provided in a hospital.
An important role in the patient's treatment intestinal infection plays a proper diet and the use of antibiotics.
In the recovery period should adhere to the prescribed regime. Special attention should be paid to child nutrition. Food should be prepared from vysokoobrazovannyh products to be tasty. Avoid various spicy and fatty foods and food, usually poorly tolerated by this child.
After hospital treatment, it is desirable to put the child b special medical institution for a period not less than one month.
In the prevention of intestinal infections are important General hygiene measures: improvement of populated areas, the fight against flies and personal hygiene. Remembering that intestinal infection is a disease of dirty hands, particular attention should be paid to their purity. After use the lavatory, a pot, before each meal, when coming from the street home is a must wash their hands with soap. You need to monitor the cleanliness of the hands of small children, and age to teach them to self-washing - firmly to instill this important hygienic skill. Fruits, berries before use should be carefully washed. Essential storage of food hygiene food preparation and thorough washing.
It goes without saying that, as with other infectious diseases, the most important preventive measure is General hardening, strengthening the child's body.
At occurrence of intestinal diseases in child you should perform the following anti-epidemic measures. The patient should be isolated in a hospital or, if possible, the doctor at home. In the latter case, provided the whole complex of measures, which have been described earlier. This is particularly important hand hygiene care of the sick, treatment utensils, clothes, disinfection of the vessel. Indoors every day should be current disinfection.
Children attending institutions, having suffered from dysentery discharged from the hospital with a full recovery, after verification of bacteriological examinations of faeces. Children who do not attend children's institutions, may be discharged without waiting for the complete liberation of the causative agent; after discharge, they are subject to medical supervision and laboratory control at home.
For family members to communicate with patients, medical supervision is established within 7 days from the moment of its isolation; children attending childcare facilities, and adults who work in the food industry, food stores, public catering establishments and institutions, subject to bacteriological examination.