Acute gastritis

Not so easy to find a person who during life never moved at least easy "food poisoning". However, alimentary harmfulness are only the most common, but not the only cause of the disease. Its determinants are quite diverse, and familiarity with them is of interest.
The etiology and pathogenesis. Etiological factors of acute gastritis can be schematically divided into exogenous (resp. - irritative, somatogenne) and endogenous (resp. - hematogenous).
Under the exogenous understood agents coming into the stomach from the outside and especially with food. Last, under certain conditions, in itself can become pathogenic factor. Even Beaumont (1833) was observed in a person with a traumatic fistula stomach quite significant changes under the influence of food errors. The mucous membrane of this body blushed, became swollen, it appeared grayish raids.
In C. M. Risso (1965), acute gastritis can be caused overeating, especially after long periods of abstinence, use too hot, it is difficult to digest, substandard food. It should be noted that in respect of endurance to all these factors, there are significant individual differences. Some people are amazing food tolerance, boasting a truly "tinned stomach". Others, however, find hypersensitivity, gastric distress they have the slightest diet errors. In the latter cases, however, it is always necessary to think about the possibility of chronic gastric pain.
It is not necessary to forget also about the existence of idiosyncrasies and sensitization in relation to certain types of food, which, however, may be quite benign. There are people who have the use of certain products (eggs, strawberries, strawberries, caviar, crabs, mushrooms and so on) is invariably accompanied by the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders (epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, etc.), responsible picture of acute gastritis. The latter may be due to drug damage to the mucosa of the stomach. Among the negative influencing of medicines called digitalis and heart glycosides, salicylates, Tofan, drugs pirazolonovogo group, arsenic, quinine, sulfanilamidami and antibiotics. We will note only that the pathogenic mechanisms of action of these and other medicinal agents far from uniform. If some of the drugs directly irritate and affect the mucous membrane of the stomach, corticosteroids, ACTH, indometacin, salicylates cause it changes more complex and not yet fully clarified by.
Finally, perhaps the most important exogenous cause of acute gastritis is eating infected with Salmonella, Staphylococcus and other microbes food. The resulting destruction is not limited to the stomach. Usually the inflammatory process captures the intestines.
Endogenous factors of acute gastritis represented, first of all infectious diseases involving General intoxication. Among them one can mention influenza, measles, typhoid fever, pneumonia, diphtheria, scarlet fever. However, the mucous membrane of stomach damage hematogenous route.
Similarly, you may experience its defeat in pathological processes, characterized by intoxication, caused by increased tissue destruction (for example, thermal, chemical and radiation burns). Next, you should mention about autointoxication and, in particular, acute renal failure. Not so obvious now questioned previously implicitly recognised the role of stagnation of blood in the vessels of the stomach. Approximately the same can be said about the importance of mental affections, the participation of which in the etiology of acute gastritis emphasizes S. M RISCOM (1965), but, strictly speaking, cannot be considered proven.
In accordance with a variety of etiological factors in the pathogenesis of acute gastritis seems neodnorodnym.
Most exogenous agents directly damage the mucous membrane of the stomach, and, at Palmer (1952), most significantly affected cells of cervical Department fundic gland.
In addition, some exogenous factors have a somewhat dual negative effect: not only direct, but also hematogenous. So, when food poisoning microbes and their degradation products enter the blood, causing bacteremia, toxemia, which, in turn, cause damage glandular formations of the stomach. Anti-inflammatory drugs, seemed able to break the regeneration of the mucous membrane of the stomach due to the cytotoxic effect (Zimmermann, Mobius, 1970). Even more complexity is different pathogenic influence of glucocorticoid hormones, the nature of which is still disputed. So, aside from violating the mucosal barrier of the stomach, attached importance to the reduction of tissue resistance last, to reduce damage to and loss of potency its mucosa, the destruction of fat cells and other pathological mechanisms (S. M. Lipovskii, 1969).
Emphasizing these circumstances, we mean that the ratio of the role of individual causes of acute gastritis changes gradually. With the growth of culture and sanitary well-being is food and toxicoinfection factors decreases. At the same time, the shift in the composition of the population due to the increase of older age groups and the associated increasing the use of different drugs increases the frequency of drug-induced lesions of the gastric mucosa, which often becomes a significant obstacle to the continuation of therapy.
As for the pathogenic mechanisms of action of endogenous factors you should take into consideration the increased sensitivity of the gastric mucosa to intoxication, hypoxia and metabolic changes in the body. With the changes can occur not only because of toxicity or other nature destruction of epithelial cells, but in the result of violations of their circulation on the grounds of increased vascular permeability, shock or collapse. Vascular factor is of particular importance in the origin of the damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach in annealed, acute renal failure, and some other pathological conditions.