Catering of children at the age from one year to three years

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Proper feeding of the child in the first year of life greatly simplifies the management of nutrition in subsequent ages. At the age of 1-3 years is the transition from breastfeeding to food adult, which is caused by the growth of the child, improving the structure of its organs and systems, activation and differentiation of physiological functions.
First of all in children after a year of life is significant changes in the digestive system: increasing the capacity of the stomach, are formed and actively functioning of all salivary gland develops the masticatory apparatus. To the year of the child has already 8 teeth. To 1 year 8 months - 2 years molars appear that allows you to type in the diet of the baby food requiring chewing. Chewing is very complicated, and not all children immediately get used to solid food pieces and chew well. In order to teach the child to this process, we must gradually and persistently to include in their diet more and more dense food. The development of the act of chewing is very important, because at this point, increases production of digestive juices. In addition, in this age there is a further development of the enzymatic function of digestive glands, are differentiated taste, improves the processes of digestion and assimilation of food.
However, the formation of liver and pancreatic cancer at an early age is not over and demands of sparing of these bodies, which is achieved due to the selection of products and their appropriate processing.
For children, the second and third years of life, the need for essential nutrients and energy are different than in the first year. In connection with reinforced metabolic processes, increased energy consumption related to the active development of the motor activity of the child, the need for essential nutrients becomes higher, at night: protein 53 g, fat 53 g, carbohydrates 212 g; calorie intake at this age should be 1540 kcal.
It is very important to include in the diet of the child the right balance of essential nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates), it should be 1:1:4. It is also important to 70 % protein fell on the share of animal protein that allows to provide plastic functions rapidly growing organism and the intensive formation of the Central nervous system.
Determining the total amount of fat in the diet of the child, we should not forget about the importance of the right balance of fats of animal and plant origin. Taking into account the need of dietary certain quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids are extremely important for the growing organism, the share of vegetable fats for children aged from 1 to 3 years should amount to 10 % from total fat; the share of linoleic acid will amount to 4 % of total calories.
Taking into account physiological features and character of metabolic processes in children aged 1 to 3 years, their needs assessed in major mineral substances (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and vitamins.
To meet the needs of children in essential nutrients, vitamins, mineral salts, it is important to ensure the necessary number of products, to take into account their quality and usefulness for the child's body and to determine the optimal balance in the daily diet.
Here is approximate daily set of products for children from 1 to 3 years to meet the physiological needs in essential nutrients and energy of the organism of a child in this age.

 Daily set of products for children from 1 to 3 years (g) 
 Bread wheat 60 50 Sugar 
 Rye bread 30 Butter 17 
 Wheat flour of 16 vegetable Oil 6 
 The potato flour 3 Eggs (pieces) 0,5 
 Cereals, legumes, pasta 30 Milk 600 
 Potatoes 150 50 Cheese 
 Vegetables 200 different Meat 85 
 Fruit fresh 130 Fish 25 
 Fruit dry 10 sour Cream 5 
 Confectionery 7 Cheese 3 
 
  • Milk and dairy products
  • Meat and meat products
  • Fish and fish products
  • Eggs
  • Bread and bakery products
  • Cereals, legumes, pasta
  • Sugar and confectionery
  • Fat products
  • Vegetables, fruits, herbs, berries