Leisure

Recreation : state of rest or of such activity, which contributes to the restoration of health. Work and leisure, work and non-working able - two sides of a single process of vital activity of the organism (see Labour). In the physiological sense, the rest - the status of specific activity when, "...being free, cell regains its normal composition" (I. P. Pavlov). The most complete the rest of the body is the dream (see); during sleep, the intense recovery processes, primarily in the cells of the brain. An important condition for the effective rest - regular alternation of periods of work and rest, thus strengthening conditioned reflexes underlying employment rights.
When determining the time required for recreation in various studies that take into account the cost of physical effort, the monotony of work, the peculiarity of the working postures, tension, temperature, distractions, and so on, Irregular, chaotic regime of work, a rhythm in the alternation of work and rest, insufficient and untimely rest contribute to the development of fatigue.
The mode is perfect for various professions should be different.
On the proper organization of the daily rest depends on the preservation of health and health. Daily activities include short breaks during working days, industrial gymnastics, which helps to improve health, reduce fatigue, increase productivity, reduce manufacturing defects and injuries. The main attention should be paid to such movements that contribute to stay more tired muscles. The lunch break is recommended in the fresh air. Mandatory restful sleep at night.
Article 119 of the USSR Constitution enshrines the right of citizens of the USSR to rest: "the Right to rest is ensured by the establishment for workers and employees seven-hour working day and a reduction of working hours to six hours for a number of professions with severe working conditions and up to four hours in the shops with particularly difficult work conditions; establishment of annual holidays of workers and employees with pay; to provide for the maintenance of workers of a wide network of health resorts, rest homes, clubs."
Five-day working week with two days off expands the possibility of organizing a weekly rest longer stay on air, travel tours, travel, fishing, playing sports. Even minor fatigueaccumulate every day, leads to fatigue and, as consequence, to decrease in resistance. Persons engaged in mental work, need not only in the passive rest, as in switching from one form of work on the other. As active leisure for persons engaged in intellectual work, it is recommended that easy physical work in the garden, vegetable garden.
Workers are provided annual vacation; during it must completely away from the usual practice, to change the situation. It is especially important to combine leisure with hardening (see), air and sunbathing, swimming, physical culture, sports. The most available and necessary for all the rest are walking and walking in the woods, the mountains, Hiking trips and excursions (see Tourism), which is a good vehicle recovery, hardening and physical development.
During the years of Soviet power created a huge network of resorts (see), sanatoriums, rest homes (see rest House), factory bases of rest, boarding houses (see), sanatorium-dispensaries (see), tourist bases, avtobenzinov and other medical institutions. In the most picturesque places of the suburban areas of large cities forces of economic and trade unions are databases and recreation areas. In clubs, palaces of culture, parks trade unions organise a variety of activities and entertainment, designed to meet the General and individual interests and needs of adults, youth, children (mass celebrations, family parties, festivals, sport competitions)and country walks, excursions to museums and nature reserves, etc.

Recreation : state of rest or of such activities, which relieves fatigue and promotes recovery. The rest is inseparable from work. Work and Acting, working and non-working able - two sides of a single process of vital activity of an organism.
The conquest of the great October socialist revolution provided to workers in the USSR and in the countries of socialism unprecedented and is not available for capitalist countries the possibility of using the Acting to meet their physical, intellectual and social needs, for the free and comprehensive development of personality.
Reduction of working time and the increase of leisure time workers in the modern world
under the influence of scientific and technical progress attract attention of bourgeois sociologists. The acuteness of the problem of influence of this process on society has led to the creation of a special "sociology of leisure". When UNESCO established international group for the study of social problems of free time; in the IV and V International Congress of sociologists for a discussion of these issues were highlighted in a special section.
Bourgeois sociologists with the assistance of entertainment and psychological treatment tend to use O. workers for their distraction from politics and class struggle, for "mitigation of hostility to labour".
In the physiological sense, the rest is state specific activity when "... being free, cage regains its normal composition" (I. P. Pavlov). A fundamental condition for the effectiveness of O. - systematic regular alternation of periods of work and Acting, which contributes to the strengthening of the conditioned reflexes, the underlying behavior and employment rights.
Research psychologists, and hygienists set of special importance active O. Another I. M. Sechenov proved that the most rapid recovery after a tiring work produced one hand, it is not at the full rest both hands, while for the other, not working hands. Switching activities in the process of working with some muscle groups on the other and from one nerve centers at other speeds up the recovery of tired muscles. Switching from one type of mental operation, and the alternation of mental activity with light physical work also improve performance, eliminate fatigue and are a peculiar form of O. (see Labor, physiology of work and rest).
Modern physiological representations about the active About. and its significance for organism has had an impact on medical practice. This resulted in a shift from the traditional principles of complete rest, sparing, more recently prevailed in the clinic for the treatment of various diseases.
The problem of rational regime of work and rest is one of the most important problems of personal, school, industrial, sports hygiene and gerontology. In a number of research institutes and laboratories studied not only the alternation of different operations or cycle followed by a break, but Acting in the course of the working day, work week, working year, and also questions of the organization's Acting, its form, the dependence of processes accompanying the Acting, from environment and food and other
Soviet psychologists and specialists conducted a series of studies and the improvement of working and Acting workers of different industries. It is established that the duration and conditions of the Acting should be sufficient to restore basic physiological functions, but at the same time, they must ensure the preservation of accumulated exercise of the working installation (A. A. Letavet). Micropause between individual production operations physiologically necessary to restore rhythmic employment and the transition to work without micropause reduces efficiency in 2-2,5 times, and it requires compensation for holiday by additional breaks.
When determining the time Acting in various studies, count the cost of physical effort, the monotony of work, the peculiarity of the working postures, tension, ambient temperature, etc. So, standard time is Acting in hot shops engineering 7 - 11% of the operating time. Depending on the specific conditions frequent and short break for Acting can be more effective in relation to health than rare prolonged interruptions. When building a labor regime is studied age peculiarities health of the person. Thus, M. C. Lanic and O. P. Maksimova found that the ratio between time and operating time of maximal muscle tension and of medium intensity is approximately 3,8 : 1 at 17 years old, was 2.6 : 1 in 20 years and 3.3 : 1 in 40 years. To establish common to all professions mode About. not possible. Only by studying the specific workflow in different working conditions can be defined breaks for Acting and without reducing productivity, prevent fatigue. Breaks for Acting made prior to the beginning of the fall in labor productivity due to the coming of fatigue.
The Institute of labour hygiene and professional diseases of AMS of the USSR for certain professions (collectors devices, typists, correctors and other) are developed and recommended the following mode O.: lunch break in the middle of the day (1 hour), introductory exercises before the start of work (5 minutes), break for Acting in the morning (5 minutes) and a break for the production of gymnastics in the second half of the day (10 minutes). The work requiring large muscle tension and stress of attention, are more frequent breaks. These interruptions (excluding dining) are included in working hours.
The nature of rest during the break in the work depends fatigue, and hence the degree of recovery. During the lunch break is recommended O. outdoors, sports, good music or the room is Acting in a comfortable position to read, play checkers, etc.
Effective form of Acting production is production gymnastics.
Research M., Marshak, A. N. Krestovnikova, Century, Popov, V. S. Rayevskiy, S. A. Kosilov and others showed that, in addition to good Acting, production gymnastics improves the health of workers, reduces fatigue, improves productivity, reduces manufacturing defects and injuries. When creating sets of exercises production gymnastics take into account the prevailing position of the body during the work, the load certain muscles, the degree and nature of fatigue and so on, For individuals performing heavy physical work, exercises should be calming nature. Each professional group has its program of exercise of industrial gymnastics.
One of the forms of leisure and streamline the regime of work, the well-proven in flow-line conveyor works is working switching from one operation on another. Thus by reducing repetitive monotonous movements changing the rhythm of work, fatigue and increases productivity.
To fully restore the health of the people working in the night shift, it is important to respect the Acting during operation, normal daily O. and continuous 7-8 hours of sleep. For large enterprises created sanatorium- (see), in which workers and employees shall enjoy Acting and if necessary treatment without interrupting production. For aircrews civil aircraft, sea and river vessels, crews of long-distance trains are special points Acting in places change.
For engaged in mental labor, and physical, strict adherence to 5-10-minute breaks after every 1-1.5 hours mental work; switching from one job to another prevents fatigue and helps to preserve health. During 5-10 minutes O. muscle tension is released, due to the fixed and sometimes incorrect body position, which is achieved light exercise. It is extremely important O. combined with light physical work, sports (Hiking, gymnastics, hunting, fishing, skiing, skating, swimming, boating, sports games).
C. S. Lukyanov provides the following approximate General scheme of the daily routine of a brain worker: morning hygienic gymnastics, water procedures (bathing, shower, affusion, rubbing), Breakfast, morning walk (walking); work (strict adherence Acting during operation), lunch at work, day walking (walking); small Acting before lunch; dinner, Acting in the home environment (light physical work, sports, visiting cinema, theatre, Museum, and so on); dinner, a walk before going to bed, shower or a warm bath, sleep not less than 7-8 hours. Right to sleep (to bed and get up at the same time), fresh air, no noise, clean and not too soft bed - all this promotes deep sleep and brings back vigor and energy for the next working day.
Forms of work and rest should be adapted to the natural and climatic conditions. This is especially important for residents of the Far North, tropical area, highlands, where the body has to adapt to the acclimatization period (see) to extreme climate conditions and unusual biological rhythms.


There are three types of O.: a) daily b) weekly C) annual.
Daily O. include short breaks during the working day, switching from one activity to another, walks on fresh air, sports, games, reading literature, theatre, concerts, cinema and mandatory restful sleep at night. Time Acting should not be aimlessly, randomly.
Weekly rest at the weekend should be used for a longer stay in the fresh air, country walks, excursions, trips, fishing, sports.
For persons engaged in intellectual work, it is recommended that easy physical work in the garden, vegetable garden.
Physical mobility, change of impressions charge a person cheerful and relieve fatigue.
Annual O. is provided to all workers during the leave. During your holiday you need to withdraw fully from the usual practice, change the situation, to gain new experiences. For health is especially important annual O. combined with hardening, air and sun bathing, sea bathing, exercises and sports. For annual O. Soviet people provided resorts (see), the sanatorium (see), rest homes (see), camps and recreation centers, tourist bases, automasinai and others In the USSR in 1965, over 7 million people rested and treated in homes O., sanatoriums-preventoriums, resorts, and other health institutions.
For recreation and health of the students used the pioneer camp (see), Hiking trips to the suburbs, excursions, trips, sports activities on the sites, museums, cinema, theatres, etc.
Rational O. students should be combined with properly organized by the regime of the day, based on educational objectives, taking into account the state of health of pupils.
Older people need more long-Acting and strict adherence to hygiene regime for the preservation of health and longevity. For most people this age feasible work is the main motivation. 3. G. Frankel recommends to individualize the working conditions of older persons, set a longer time-to lengthen vacation. Important systematic studies hygienic gymnastics, which improve respiration, coordination, warn of congestion, joint stiffness, etc., These activities should be accompanied by tempering water treatments.
In the organization of collective forms of O. workers huge work was done by the Soviet trade unions. In clubs, palaces of culture, parks, they organise various kinds of leisure and entertainment, is designed to meet the General and individual interests and needs of adults, youth, children (mass celebrations, family evenings O., festivals, sports competitions, country walks, collective trips to the forest for mushrooms, berries, excursions to museums and nature reserves, games, dances, etc).
Around cities and in large industrial centers, in the most beautiful surroundings of Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and other cities (in forested areas) are databases Acting in the woods, near lakes, rivers are built water station, tourist bases, yacht clubs, pioneer camp.
Along with rest houses - year-round, seasonal, day (for family, pregnant women, mothers with children, and others) for mass O. workers are summer and year-round towns O., which provide all the necessary cultural O.
Tourism (see) is a form of active rest, vehicle recovery, hardening and physical development. Tens of thousands of workers each year spend their Acting, travelling on your own car along the picturesque and interesting places of the country.
In the Directives of the XXIII Congress of the CPSU on the five-year development plan of national economy of the USSR in 1966-1970 provides translation of workers and employees on a five-day working week (five working days and two days off) with preservation of the currently installed total working time per week, further improvement of organized recreation workers, the expansion of boarding houses, rest houses, tourist bases and other recreational facilities.