Swelling

Swelling - General or local manifestation of violation of water exchange with the accumulation of excess water, proteins and electrolytes in the intercellular space or serous cavities of the body. For edema is characterized by increase of the volume and change in the form of an organ or body part. Swelling of the skin decreases its elasticity, there blanching and cooling the surface, mucous membranes become translucent. In the context of swollen tissue is allocated colorless or pale yellow liquid containing water, electrolytes, some protein and leukocytes - they are especially numerous in edema fluid in inflammatory oedema (see the Transudate, Exudate). Edema fluid is formed from the blood.
The development of a hypostasis of unfavourable conditions for functioning of the tissues (blood circulation disorders, difficulty gas exchange), cause the infection, in some cases can be life-threatening (larynx edema, lung, brain and so on). Due to the fact that the water is kept in the blood line (due to a higher oncotic pressure in the blood than in the tissue fluid); the formation of edema contributes to the reduction oncotic pressure, and improving the hydrodynamic pressure in the capillaries, the delay sodium in the body, violation of lymph drainage, etc.
On the mechanism of occurrence of swelling are divided into mechanical (stagnant), giponatriemia associated with the delay sodium in the body, membranophone, lymphogenous and so on, But most of the swelling should be attributed to the mixed type.
Mechanical swelling occur when thrombophlebitis, the compression of the veins (pregnancy, with the tumor, and so on); oncotic - with nephrotic syndrome (see), beriberi and dystrophy; membranophone - inflammation, exposure to toxic substances.
To swelling of mixed type are ascites and allergic swelling (urticaria, serum sickness).
There are the following forms of edema.
Heart swelling occur from delay sodium in the body in heart failure. Reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules increases, which increases its concentration in the blood. The decrease in renal blood flow increases the secretion of aldosterone, and subsequent hyperosmia leads to increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In the plasma increases, increases venous and capillary pressure and increases transsoudace. The swelling usually formed gradually, first in the lower extremities.
Renal swelling and occur due to increased permeability of the renal glomeruli and loss of protein in renal failure. In the body, delayed sodium and water. Swellings are formed throughout the body, starting on the face, especially on the eyelids.
Swelling with cirrhosis of the liver - arise in connection with the increase of the content in the body of aldosterone and ADH. Contributes to the appearance of edema violation of the synthesis of albumin by the liver.
Hormonal swelling - with the introduction of excess body concentration or hypersecretion.
Local swelling - in violation of venous outflow as a result of increased pressure in the capillaries and venules.
Lymphoedema is delayed or lymph drainage.
Inflammatory edema - while increasing the permeability of capillaries and venules for protein.
To recognize the swelling is pretty easy to change the volume of the body, thickening of the skin, mucous membranes, sharp changes in weight patients.
To eliminate edema necessary treatment of the underlying disease. Cm. Water exchange. Mineral metabolism.

Swelling (oedema) - General or local manifestation of violation of water metabolism characterized by excessive accumulation of water, proteins and electrolytes in the extracellular tissue space or serous cavities of the body.
Signs of edema: increase in the volume, change the shape of the organ or body part, voltage swollen skin, loss of elasticity and the emergence of a pasty consistency, high gloss surface (serous membranes, skin, cut matter of the brain and other), the color change of the authority in a pale red or whitish.
The mucous membranes become translucent and gelatincapsule.
The increase is less pronounced edema internal compact organs (liver, spleen, heart muscle). In the context of swollen tissue is allocated transparent colorless or pale yellow liquid (in inflammatory O. - muddy). The liquid produced when swollen slit of light, frothy due to its content of air. Edema (Vodianova) liquid contains water, electrolytes and different amounts of protein and blood elements (especially white blood cells). The protein content and leukocytes are particularly high in edema fluid in inflammatory O. (see Transudate, Exudates).
Microscopic picture. Swelling of the cells and fibers apart swollen with fluid. Connective tissue fibres-split into fibrils; with long-Acting fibrils swell, materirals and dissolve. When starting O. accumulation edema fluid may be preceded by inflammation of the connective tissue. Lymphatic capillaries expanded. In case of progressive edema cells lose the relationship with interstitial tissue, swell and vacuolized.
With long-term edema associated with impaired metabolic processes in tissues, in its cells find and degenerative necrobiotic changes. At long Acting connective tissue can grow sklerozirovanie. In edemic lungs fluid builds up not only in the interstitial tissue, but in the cavity of the alveoli.