Expectorants - the substances promoting Department of bronchial secretions.
There are expectorants reflex (the root of ipecac, grass termopsisa, the root of milkwort) and direct action on the mucous membrane of the bronchi (potassium iodide, sodium iodide, sodium hydrogen, terpingidrat, trypsin). Expectorants reflex actions cause irritation of sensitive nerve endings of the gastric mucosa. The result is a reflex increased bronchial secretions. This effect leads to the dilution of sputum and facilitate its branch.
Known role in otharkivajushchim effect plays strengthening rhythmic contractions of the bronchial muscles and improve impellent activity of ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Reflex expectorants in high doses (10 to 20 times larger than the doses cause expectorant effect) cause vomiting.
Expectorants direct actions have a direct effect on the bronchial glands and their secretions. These substances are partially allocated through the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. Their irritating action on the spot removal leads to increased secretion and liquefaction secret. Sodium hydrogen creates an alkaline reaction in the bronchial mucosa. Thus it contributes to the dissolution of mucin and reduces the viscosity of sputum. Decreases viscosity rate under the influence of trypsin (used inflation in aerosol form) due to its proteolytic properties.
The major indication for the use of means salt are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract and lungs in the presence of cough with thick, hard otharkiwate sputum. Separate expectorants - see the article by name drugs.

Expectorants (Ехресtorantia) - substances that facilitate removal of mucus from the Airways. Expectorant effect of these substances is associated with stimulating effect on the secretory and motor functions of the respiratory tract. O. S. enhance the secretion of bronchial glands, reduces the viscosity of sputum and stimulate peristaltic contractions of the muscles of the bronchi. The removal of sputum from the respiratory tract also contributes to increasing and deepening of the respiratory movements.
Expectorant effect may be the result of direct or reflex actions of O. S. on the smooth musculature and the mucous membrane of the bronchi. In connection distinguish O. C. local and reflectory activity type.
To expectorant the facilities of the local actions include essential oil, ammonium chloride (see), sodium bicarbonate (see Sodium, drugs), iodine, potassium and sodium (see Iodine, medicines), etc. These tools are effective in resorptive effect and the local application (inhalations with water vapor).
Of essential oils as O. S. use of eucalyptus, anise, Timanova oil, turpentine (see), terpingidrat (see) and other Applicable basis of essential oils are terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons, which have a direct stimulating effect on the bronchial glands. Essential oils have also moderate antiseptic and deodorizing properties. As O. S. the essential oils usually use for inhalation. Some of them applied inside per se (aniseed oil, terpingidrat) or in complex medicinal forms in combination with other expectorants (pektol, ammonia-anisic drops, pertussin).
Sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride have a weak expectorant effect, predominantly affect the viscosity of secretion of bronchial glands. Dissolving the mucin, they contribute to the dilution of sputum. The iodine potassium and sodium as O. S. applied inside, sodium iodide can be applied intravenously.
To O. S. reflex actions include drugs of some medicinal plants is of ipecac (see), thermopsis, Senegal, milkwort (see Medicinal plants). Alkaloids and saponins contained in these drugs, called reflex (with receptors gastric mucosa) strengthening the secretion of bronchial glands and peristaltic contractions of the smooth muscles of the bronchi. Increasing the dose of drugs is also seen their emetic effect. Emetic effect preparations of ipecac and termopsisa occurs only when the dose is increased by 10-20 times compared with that in which these drugs cause expectoration.
For practical purposes a simple and herbal medicines called medicinal plants (powders, tinctures, decoctions, tinctures, extracts). Drugs termopsisa, ipecac and Senegal is normally used in combination with O. S. local action - ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and other
The indication for the use of O. S. are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract, accompanied by cough with viscous, hard separable sputum. The action means salt increases with excessive drinking. For a reflex O. with. important and frequency techniques. Preparations of ipecac, termopsisa and Senegal, assign 2-3 hours.
Side properties O. S. unequal. O. S. reflex actions cause nausea, vomiting. When using iodine often arise phenomenon yodizma. O. E., irritating the Airways (iodides, terpingidrat, turpentine), can contribute to worsening of chronic lung diseases and respiratory tract infections (tuberculosis, bronchial ecstatic disease and so on). Ammonium chloride, reducing the alkaline reserve of blood, can cause injury acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate increases the alkaline reserve of blood, and thereby reduces anxiety respiratory center.
A face means can be used substances from other pharmacological groups. Expectorant effect is observed when using camphor (see) and other