Poisoning by arsenic and its compounds

Arsenic is a chemical element of variable valency. This metal grey, insoluble in water. Easily oxidized in the air with the formation of highly toxic arsenic trioxide. Many organic and inorganic arsenic compounds: All compounds of arsenic is toxic, and the most toxic compounds of trivalent arsenic compounds of pentavalent arsenic less toxic. In expert practice more common poisonings arsenic pentoxide, less other compounds arsenic - Paris greens, arsenite sodium, calcium and potassium.
Organic arsenic compounds are less toxic than inorganic. They are widely used for therapeutic purposes, but can cause severe poisoning.
Acute poisoning by organic arsenic compounds (noversana, Marsena and others), administered orally possible severe allergies, developing type anafilakticheskogo shock. Develop swelling of the tongue and throat, facial flushing, shortness of breath, cough drop in blood pressure. Further stratify chills, fever, skin rash, loss of consciousness, convulsions.
When the soluble and the intake of arsenic compounds through the mouth often develops gastrointestinal form of poisoning. The introduction of poison in the blood, subcutaneously cause paralytic form of poisoning. After the introduction of poison through the mouth in the first 1-2 hours patients complain of a metallic taste in the mouth, pain in the mouth, throat, nausea and vomiting and diarrhea. In the following hours and days are the symptoms of the digestive tract. Experiencing severe pain in the mouth and in the course of the esophagus. In the mouth, esophagus, stomach and small intestine sores appear. Possible burn shock, intestinal cramps and bloody-mucous stool. Sometimes these symptoms are accepted for the clinic "acute abdomen", and patients are operated. Already in the first day come dehydration, hemolysis of erythrocytes, phenomena of acidosis.
Liver damage is a permanent symptom of poisoning arsenic compounds. Also been impaired kidney function. Signs of kidney failure appear from 4-6 days poisoning. In case of poisoning high doses of arsenic compounds develops a picture of the Central nervous system, manifested by General weakness, painful convulsions and coma.
Inhalation of vapors (dust) arsenic compounds latent period may be absent or to last for a very short time. Compounds containing arsenic, cause a number of changes in the functional state of organs and systems. The important place occupied by violations of the cardiovascular system. Circulatory disorders caused by expansion and increased permeability of blood vessels, which leads to a fall in blood pressure and collapse, change of heart rate. The clinical picture of poisoning by arsenic and its compounds has a significant place symptoms indicative of involvement in the pathological process of the Central and peripheral nervous system, the defeat of the digestive system and other low-Toxic compounds of pentavalent of arsenic in the body can become poisoned in the connections of trivalent arsenic, and the last form a toxic process. Most of soluble compounds of arsenic in the beginning of intoxication is found in red blood cells. With repeated exposure to the poison is able to accumulate in the body, especially in the skin and its appendages (hair, nails). The content of arsenic in hair dozens of times higher than in the liver, where it is found in relatively large quantities in comparison with other bodies. Removal of arsenic as drugs mercury, with the urine through the digestive tract, skin, with his mother's milk and other ways. The urine is uneven and can reach a maximum of 4 days from the moment of receipt of the poison in the body.
In the case of paralytic form of arsenic poisoning gastrointestinal disorders are absent or poorly marked, marked dizziness, headache, delirium, loss of consciousness, coma, convulsions. Death usually occurs within the first hours after the poisoning. Section discover swelling and a plethora brain, minor bleeding in his substance. In the mesenteric vessels congestion, serous membrane of thin intestines sticky to the touch, pinkish color. In the stomach contains a cloudy liquid. The mucous membrane of the stomach reddened, swollen, with foci of necrosis. In the intestines - watery contents mixed with mucus and epithelialresembling congee. The mucous membrane of the small intestine swollen, swollen. In the large intestine - mucous content. In the heart, the kidneys and liver phenomena fatty dystrophy, sometimes phenomena cloudy swelling.
The paralytic form of arsenic poisoning change from the gastrointestinal tract may not exist or be poorly expressed. Lethal dose of acute poisoning arsenous anhydride of 0.1 - 0.2 g
Chronic arsenic poisoning in forensic practice are rare.
For the diagnosis of poisoning compounds of arsenic, great importance is attached to laboratory investigations, including forensic chemical research, allowing the definition of the poisons in the blood, urine, in the lavage and internal organs of the body.