Poisoning with mushrooms

Poisoning by mushrooms often associated with eating inedible mushrooms (pale grebe, mushroom, lines, agarics, satanic mushroom and others), rarely with the use of conditionally eatable mushrooms, which before use should be subject to special treatment (long drenching, prolonged cooking and other). The main reason of such poisoning are ignorance species of fungi, negligence on its collection and preparation, ignorance of proper pre-treatment of mushrooms.
Forensic medical diagnosis of poisoning is based on the circumstances of the accident, the clinical picture of intoxication, data - mortem, Botanical research vomit, wash water, the contents of the stomach and intestines.
Poisoning pale grebe. Meets three types of russule (green, yellow, white), which contain several toxic substances, the most dangerous amentotaxus - thermostable, not collapsing under the action of processing, or under the influence of gastric juice is the strongest plant poison. Contained in mushrooms other toxins - amunicipality, phalloidin are less important as losing their toxic properties (destroyed) when heated to 70 C and under the influence of gastric juice.
At the use of russule signs of poisoning appear later, 3-15 am Suddenly experiencing severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea with blood, oliguria, then anuria, jaundice appears. Growing acute liver and kidney failure, which leads to death for 2-4 days poisoning.
During the autopsy of the dead is celebrated bleeding in serous membranes, the lining of the stomach, intestines, and in parenchymatous organs, fatty degeneration of the liver, heart muscle, kidneys.
Poisoning lines. The lines, as, and externally similar edible mushrooms morels, appear simultaneously in April - may. Lines contain galvalloy acid, a powerful poison that almost never loses toxicity when heated and due to good solubility in boiling water goes into the broth. Drying mushrooms reduces their toxicity. Galilova acid able to cumulation, has expressed hemolytic and hepatotropic effect.
The first signs of poisoning appear after 4-10 hours after eating mushrooms. Pain in the abdomen, nausea, then join severe headache, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea usually not. In severe cases of poisoning are marked dizziness, delirium, convulsions, on the second day of the icteric staining of the skin and mucous membranes due to hemolysis. There comes the kidney and liver. The mortality rate is about 30%. Timely medical help is often prevents death.
At showdown - fatty degeneration of the liver, kidneys, myocardial dystrophy, an enlarged spleen, sometimes there is acute yellow atrophy of the liver, point bleeding of mucous membrane of the stomach, under the pleura, the epicardium. The required differential diagnosis with Hungary disease, dysentery.
The mushroom poisoning is rare, mostly in children. There are several varieties of mushrooms, contain a variety of toxins - muscarin (antagonist atropine), Peltonen (poison, causing convulsions) and muscarinic (atropinopodobnye matter).
After eating the mushroom poisoning symptoms appear after 1-6 h - nausea, vomiting, sudden attacks of abdominal pain, excessive sweating, salivation, lacrimation, shortness of breath, depending on the character contained in the mushroom poison may be accelerated pulse, reduced inhibition (from muscaria), dilated pupils, slow pulse (from ascaridida). Cramps, sleep or coma complete picture of poisoning. Fatal relatively rare. In severe cases, in the presence of seizures, and coma death may occur in 1 day. The mushroom poisoning must be distinguished from poisoning organophosphorus compounds.
At showdown died from poisoning fly agaric detect changes, characteristic for gastroenteritis and signs quickly actual death.