Poisoning by mercury and its compounds

Mercury is a liquid metal. In the nature meets in natural form or in combination with sulfur - cinnabar. Mercury is easily evaporates at room temperature. The degree of toxicity of mercury compounds (chloride, dichloride, nitrate and sulfite mercury, cyanide, mercury and others) depends primarily on their solubility.
In the body of mercury and its compounds go through the respiratory tract (in the form of vapour or in finely pulverized state), through the skin and digestive tract (metallic mercury and its compounds), through the urogenital system (solutions of salts of mercury).
In medical practice, the most frequent poisoning by mercury dichloride (mercuric chloride), which is a crystal powder of white color is used for disinfection purposes in the form of tablets, tinted in red or pink. With the introduction of mercury dichloride in the body through the mouth felt metallic taste, severe pain in the mouth, esophagus and stomach, nausea, vomiting blood and mucus masses. The mucous membrane of the lips and mouth swells and becomes grayish color. As suction dichloride mercury mind is darkened, sometimes disappears, marked General weakness, the decline of cardiac activity, phenomena stomatitis, ulceration, pain in the intestines, often painful, mixed with blood chair, polyuria, oliguria, anuria, uremia, which usually leads to death. Outstanding mercury dichloride salivary glands, gastrointestinal (mainly colon) and kidneys. When the blood gets to large amounts death can occur in the first hours after poisoning from paralysis of the Central nervous system. As a rule, death for poisoning by mercury dichloride occurs in the period from 5 to 10 days. Lethal dose when the stomach - 0.1-0.3 g, in intravenous - half. The case fatality rate is about 50-60%. The section in the event of death from acute poisoning in the stomach observed necrosis of the mucous membrane and sharp hemorrhagic edema submucosal layer in the mouth - stomatitis, in the colon ulcerative colitis with full necrosis mucosal and submucosal layer, kidney - nefrosonefrit with necrosis of the main departments of the tubules. In the colon serous membrane, reddened in some areas, dull, sticky to the touch. In the liver, glands of internal secretion and cardiac muscle - processes dystrophy.
Less common are poisoning by mercury chloride mercury and cyanide. The mercury chloride (calomel) is used as a cathartic. During the arrest him in the gut may arise toxic effects.
When entering the stomach of large doses of cyanide mercury death comes quickly from hydrocyanic acid, which is formed under the influence of hydrochloric acid. Lethal dose when administered orally mercury chloride - 2-3 g, cyanide mercury - 0,2-1,
Sensitivity to mercury compounds are highly individual. Known cases of kidney damage due to the use of ointments containing a small amount of mercury.
Organic mercury compounds are more toxic than inorganic, which is associated with a different degree of solubility in water.