Acid poisoning

  • The acetic acid poisoning
  • Poisoning oxalic acid
  • Poisoning by carbolic acid (phenol)
  • Poisoning of sulphuric, nitric, hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid), hydrochloric acid
  • Acids are compounds whose molecules in aqueous solution otscheplaut hydrogen ions. The severity of their toxic effect depends on the amount of free hydrogen ions and increases their increase (due to the high degree of dissociation or acid concentration). Hydrogen ions Rob tissues water, cause coagulation of protein, destroy protein and lead to dry (coagulation) necrosis. Under the influence of hydrogen ions observed splitting of hemoglobin, the fabrics are coloured in yellow-brown or grayish-brown. The dead tissue in contact with the acid form plotnosti scabs, surrounded by lots of inflammation. Picture of poisoning depends largely on the way of administration, duration of exposure, sensitivity of the organism.
    Most often toxins enter the body through the mouth. If swallowed appear pain in the mouth, in the course of the esophagus, stomach. Often there is vomiting, often vomit have the color of coffee grounds due to the formation of hematin, mixed with detached areas of the mucosa. With vast burn surface poisoning proceeds rapidly, rapidly developing shock and death. Due to aspiration acid or its vapors and particles vomit appear sharp persistent cough and shortness of breath. Because of the rapid development swelling at the entrance to the larynx or the vocal cords can cause asphyxia, resulting in death.
    After absorption acids General reaction manifests itself in dilated pupils, cramps, musculoskeletal disorders, low blood pressure, liver damage, kidney disease, hemolysis, and other
    In a day of local phenomena several subside. Developed stomatitis. There are hematuria and proteinuria. There may be peritonitis, mediastinum, pneumonia. When the scarring of ulcerous surface form stricture. Depending on the specifics of development of clinical death can occur from the shock, asphyxia, diffuse peritonitis and other reasons.
    When death from poisoning various acids morphological picture is very similar: burns to the skin and mucous membranes, swelling of the entrance to the larynx, a plethora of internal organs, dystrophy parenchymatous organs; during slow death - peritonitis, nefrosonefrit, severe degenerative changes in the liver, kidneys and heart.
    Differential diagnosis of poisoning various acids based on the assessment of the local action of acids. For sulfuric acid poisoning characterized by deep necrosis of the mucous membrane of the stomach, acquiring coal-black color; if poisoning nitric acid mucous membrane yellowish tint, hydrochloric - dirty-gray color.