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Acute poisoning psychotropic drugs

Psychotropic drugs have a direct impact on the mental processes. Some of these substances can have different side effects, in particular to them there is addictive (substance abuse). Increasing the release of these funds and abuse led to the growth of acute intoxications. Among psychotropic substances emit 5 groups: drugs (morphine, lysergic acid diethylamide - LDK, cocaine, preparations of Indian hemp), neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs (derivatives fenotiazina and others), tranquilizers (meprobamate, amizil, and others), antidepressants (iprase, Kisin), Psychoanaleptics (caffeine, amphetamine , and other).
Drugs cause alternating manic and depressive syndromes with aggressive or suicidal color, physical depletion and degradation of personality. Intoxication occurs with long-term drug use due to addiction to them. Many of them are used in medicine as pain relievers. These will include morphine (drug derived from opium powder), other opiates and synthetic drugs with morphine-like effect.
Lethal dose of morphine , when administered 0.2-0.4 g, parenteral of 0.1-0.2 g in Parallel with the development of substance abuse appears addiction to drugs. There are the cases when the drug was administered over 10 to 14 g of morphine. The action of the preparations of opium largely coincides with that of morphine main representative group of narcotic analgesics. Morphine is absorbed quickly and has an effect after 10-15 minutes after subcutaneous injection and after 20-30 minutes after taking the inside. Concentrated morphine in various organs and tissues, mostly in the liver where it undergoes demethylation. Immediately after absorption morphine partially excreted with jelchew and unchanged in the intestinal lumen (with subsequent re-absorption), and also excreted in feces, urine, saliva, and then with the milk of nursing mothers. Maximum allocation observed in 8-12 hours Per day is allocated about 75 % of morphine received into the body.
The most common causes of acute poisoning opiates include accidental overdose, intentional overdose attempting suicide.
In the picture of morphine poisoning and its analogues occupies a leading position in dire emerging respiratory failure due to the inhibitory effect of narcotic analgesics on the respiratory center. In the initial stages of poisoning euphoria followed by drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, sometimes vomiting, there is a constriction of the pupil with a weakening of their reaction to light slow breathing, blood pressure lowering. Upon the occurrence of a coma - sharp narrowing pupils, pale skin, the skin is moist and cold, the body temperature is lowered. Death from paralysis of the respiratory center.
Other opium alkaloids deserves attention heroin, which is similar to morphine, but stronger.
Other drugs of vegetable origin (lysergic acid diethylamide - LDK, LSD - derivative LPV, hashish, marijuana, marijuana) is the derivative of the Indian hemp; cocaine alkaloid found in the leaves of the South African Bush, etc. when introduced into the body to cause short-term psychosis with hallucinations (hence their second name - hallucinogens). These substances are already in very small doses cause a temporary mental disorder. For example, the LDK in the dose of 0.001 mg/kg causes psychotic disorder lasting 5-10 hours Lethal dose exceed toxic 100 times or more. Psychic disturbances observed in 20-30 minutes after the receipt of the LDK in the body, reaching a maximum after 1-2 hours and lasts on average 6-8 hours, sometimes up to 16-20 hours
Cocaine is used in medical practice as a local anesthetic agent. The doses of cocaine or accidental admission or introduction of this substance can cause acute poisoning. Lethal dose subcutaneous injection of 0.1-0.3 g, with the introduction through the mouth- 1 -1,5, Death may occur within a few minutes. Cocaine acts specifically only on the nervous system and other organs it is not amazing. Death occurs from respiratory paralysis. Excreted mainly with urine. When taken by mouth partially destroyed by the liver.