Poisoning alkalis

Caustic lye (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide - ammonia) is widely used in the workplace and in the home. Poisoning them (oral) mainly random. Excreted by the gut and in the kidney damage these organs. Lethal dose of sodium hydroxide and potassium-10-15 g, pharmacy ammonia - 25-40 ml deaths occur in 50 % of cases of poisoning. Ammonia is sometimes used orally for the "elimination" of alcohol intoxication, which often lead to acute poisoning.
Reception caustic alkalis calls inside the clinical picture, similar to that with acid poisoning. Alkali deeper than acid penetrates into the tissue, forming deep necrosis, covering a scab or whitish grey color. Prijigatm action caustic stronger than caustic soda. Ammonia has a particularly sharp irritating.
In case of poisoning appear excessive thirst, vomiting, often with blood and bloody diarrhea. Experiencing severe pain in the mouth and in the course of the digestive tract, leading to the development of a painful shock. As a result of burns and swelling pharyngeal ring develops mechanical asphyxia. At the same time marked the defeat of the kidneys and liver. Microscopic examination unlike the action of corrosive acids characteristic colliquate tissues. In the acute period of the possible re-esophageal-gastric bleeding. Death can occur in the first hours and days of burn shock, and later - from pneumonia, massive bleeding and other reasons. In case of poisoning ammonia most expressed in the phenomenon of abrupt Central nervous system, respiratory depression, toxic pulmonary edema. There is a high mortality rate. In case of poisoning liquid ammonia on the background of alcohol intoxication is the summation of toxic effects. The degree of intoxication depends on the doses of toxic substances and other factors that determine the severity of the toxic process. In forensic chemical examination will be quantitative determination of caustic alkalis in the internal organs of the body.

1. What poisons are to caustic?
2. What are the most typical conditions poisoning corrosive toxic substances.
3. What is local, and the General action of acids in the human body?
4. What are the causes of death from poisoning corrosive acids and alkalis?
5. What is the basis of expert conclusion about the death from poisoning acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, acetic?
6. What is the mechanism of action of alkalis on the human body?
7. What is the basis for diagnostics of death from poisoning alkalis?
8. What is the lethal dose of acid and alkali solutions for man?