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Poisoning with alcohol substitutes and technical liquids

Ethylene glycol - diatomic alcohol, is widely used as one of the main components of antifreezes, brake fluids. For de-icing is applied in the form of water 55 % solution (antifreeze B2).
Acute poisoning glycol occur when taking it inside as a surrogate alcohol. Mortality in severe poisoning is 90-100 %. On character of action on an organism ethylene glycol is neuro-vascular and protoplasmatic poison. During poisoning distinguish several periods hidden, brain phenomena and renal-hepatic lesions. After ingestion of ethylene glycol intoxication occurs mild. Then develop symptoms of Central nervous system and kidneys, General weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, convulsions, loss of consciousness. In severe poisoning death comes on the 1-3 day. Lethal dose of 150 grams and above.
The toxicity of ethylene glycol is associated with the rapid formation of intermediate products exchange (glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and others). Death occurs in most cases, in connection with the development of acute renal failure. In such cases, the autopsy of the dead are identified characteristic changes of the kidneys and liver. Marked increase in the size and mass of the kidneys (up to 600 g), hydropic degeneration of the epithelium of convoluted tubules of the kidneys, necrotic argued with focal hemorrhages, bilateral cortical and nephrosis of oxalate crystals in the kidneys.
The liver is enlarged, its mass reaches 2200-2400 g on sections liver has "Muscat" look, it expressed centrolobular degeneration and necrosis.
Tetraethyl lead (TPP) - organic compound of lead. Is an oily, volatile liquid, easily evaporating. Included in the number 54-58 % in the composition of different liquids, which are added as antiknock additives to low-octane gasoline grades. TPP easily evaporate even at temperatures below 0 deg C. Pair is considerably heavier than air, so they accumulate in the lower parts of the premises. Well soluble in fats, lipids, organic solvents.
Acute poisoning TPP arise in the event of incorrect use of leaded petrol inside; and inhalation of vapors (using contains TPP liquids as solvent paints, for washing hands, cleaning clothes and others); by suction TPP through intact skin. Possible poisoning by exhaust gases from cars run on leaded gasoline, as well as pairs when washing the leaded gasoline hot parts of the engine of the vehicle with the purpose of cleaning it. Recently, in connection with partial replacement TPP other, less toxic anti-knock number of poisoning them has considerably decreased.
Oral poisoning ethyl fluid lethal dose equal to 10-15 ml of Severe poisoning by inhalation of vapors may occur even in case of maximum permissible concentration - MPC (0.005 mg/m3). Thermal power plants and products of its metabolism can long-term (up to 3 months) to remain in the body. Selection is carried out with the urine and feces.
Poisoning is characterized by a complex lesion of the Central nervous system.
At showdown died from acute poisoning TPP morphological changes are mostly found in the structural units of the Central nervous system. Marked dystrophic and necrobiotic changes of nerve cells of the optic hill, hypothalamic area of a bark of the big hemispheres. In the study with the help of a microscope the brain and shell worthwhile, moderately edematous. In other internal organs picture congestive hyperemia, dystrophic changes, with prolonged for developing catarrhal-hemorrhagic pneumonia.