Poisoning by pesticides

In the basis of the toxic action of organophosphorus pesticides (FOS) is their ability to selectively inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase, and distort the processes of transmission of nerve impulses in the synapses. Most often there are poisoning tifoso and chlorophos. Foz act on the Central and autonomic nervous system. Well soluble in fats and lipids, Foz easily absorbed through intact skin and penetrate into rich lipid tissue, particularly in the tissues of the Central nervous system. As a rule, they do not have a local irritant and hit them on the skin may remain unnoticed.
All FOS have low chemical activity, which makes them difficult to define in various media by chemical methods. They define biochemical methods. In fatal poisoning Foz dose determination of the interior of the poison is a difficult task. Oral poisoning death occurs from the reception of 0.24-2 g tifosi.
In forensic practice have to deal with poisoning organophosphorus insecticides, when the poisons act orally in water solutions, in the form of emulsions, in solutions of organic compounds or chemically pure state. The poison is very rapidly absorbed from the stomach, getting into the blood. The OPC penetration through intact skin is observed in production conditions (stirring hand FOS in the preparation of working solutions). Known cases of severe poisoning by ingestion of WCF in much the surface of the skin. There may also be cases of inhalation poisoning Foz indoors by inhalation poisons that are in powdered or in the form of vapour, in gardens, vineyards, field spraying of insecticides with aircraft, helicopters and other Acute poisoning FOS are also observed to penetrate through the mucous membranes of eyes.
The severity of poisoning depends on the dose of poison. The development of intoxication begins as soon as the poison entered the body. Marked anxiety, fear, hallucinations, memory loss, difficulty speaking. Then join breathing difficulties, infringements of gait, tremor hands, heads, confusion. In severe cases, there are seizures and convulsions. Death occurs due to paralysis of the respiratory centre, usually in the first days after the poisoning.
Various representatives Foz typos, mercaptophos, octamethyl, chlorophos and other causes basically similar clinical symptoms of intoxication and morphological changes in the body. In the study of bodies of persons who died from poisoning tifoso, usually detected swelling of the lungs, brain and meninges, the plethora of internal organs, point bleeding of the brain substance, and other nonspecific changes. Laboratory studies have important diagnostic value, allow revealing in biological media itself poison or its oxidation product, as well as to establish the degree of inhibition of cholinesterase.
Copper-containing compounds (Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, chlorosis copper, and other) in direct contact with the tissues form albuminates copper, which have astringent and prijigatm action.
In the body poisons act through the respiratory tract and oral. Inhalation poisoning observed attacks mannoproteins fever, increased body temperature to 39 C, pouring sweat, nasal bleeding, cough, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Oral poisoning a metallic taste in the mouth, come loss of appetite, salivation, increased thirst, pain in podlojecna area, vomiting masses of blue-green color, bloody diarrhea, blue colour of the tongue, decreased body temperature. For poisoning characterized by the development of hemolytic anemia, hepatitis with jaundice, uremia, respiratory failure and cardiac activity. Severe poisoning accompanied by the development of collapse, convulsions, coma, death occurs in 3-4 days.
The section had died from acute poisoning copper-containing pesticides set acute anemia, sharp degenerative changes in the liver and kidneys, chronic bronchitis, pericarditis, fatty infiltration of the myocardium, toxic hepatitis.
Among the pesticides of plant origin from alkaloids, the highest value for forensic medicine (used in agriculture) are derivatives of pyridine - anabasine and nicotine. These substances are very strong poisons, are substances n-holinomimeticalkie actions.
Hit the Central and peripheral nervous system. First, excite, and then paralyze autonomic ganglia. In both the body of poison easily penetrate through minor skin damage (scratches, sores). In case of poisoning occur headaches, shortness of breath, diarrhea, upset hearing, then loss of consciousness, convulsions stop breathing. In forensic chemical examination is made of the qualitative and quantitative determination of poisons in organs.

Checklist
1. Name of organochlorine pesticides and describe the mechanism of their action on the human body.
2. What is forensic medical diagnosis death from poisoning organochlorines?
3. Name of organophosphorus pesticides and give a description of the mechanisms of their action on the human body.
4. What is based forensic medical establishment death from poisoning organophosphorus and organochlorines?
5. Give a description of the mechanisms of action of copper-containing pesticides on human organism.
6. What is the mechanism of action of pesticides of plant origin in the human body?