Poisoning by pesticides

  • Organophosphorus pesticides and copper-containing compounds
  • In agricultural production to combat pests, and diseases of cultivated plants, as well as for destruction of weeds have found an extensive use of organic and inorganic compounds directed action, United under a common name - the pesticides.
    Depending on directional among the pesticides there are insecticides (substances to destroy harmful insects), herbicides (means for destruction of weed vegetation), fungicides (means to combat fungal diseases of plants), and other
    The severity of poisoning by pesticides depends on dose toxicity routes of exposure and other conditions. In the body they can come through the respiratory tract, in the form of vapour (hexachloran, ethylmercury, ethylmercaptan, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, carbon disulphide and other), aerosols (pesticides), in the form of tiny droplets (poisons in the solutions or suspensions). Many chemicals can absorbed through intact skin and cause toxic effects (mercury fungicides - ethylmercaptan, ethylmercury), fosforera technological connection Foz (typos, metaphos, octameter), organochlorine compounds (hexachloran, chloride). Great importance is the absorption of toxic chemicals through the mucous membrane of the eyes, the mouth cavity and nasopharynx. Most pesticides are well absorbed through the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.
    When injected into the blood pesticides are distributed in the body unevenly. Well soluble in lipids and fats in large quantities penetrate nerve tissue and have a predominant influence on the Central nervous system.
    In the body pesticides are subject to various chemical transformations, which are reduced to the processes of oxidation, hydrolytic cleavage, deamination, and in some cases - recovery. As a result of these transformations some pesticides are deactivated (typos and others), in other metabolites are more toxic (octamethyl, chloride). An important role in the process of neutralization of toxic chemicals plays the liver. Of particular importance in the removal is the liver's ability to synthesize chemicals conjugated connection with sulphuric and glukuronova acids. Such function of the liver associated with the content of glycogen.
    Many heavy metals and metalloids are allocated through the gastrointestinal tract (mercury, copper, arsenic). Volatile, gaseous and vaporous pesticides (chlorpicrin, hydrogen sulfide, arsenic hydrogen) are removed from the body through the lungs. The skin takes part in the excretion of heavy metals and metalloids (mercury, copper, arsenic, hydrogen sulphide, phenol and many fat-soluble drugs. Some fat-soluble substances can be displayed with milk (hexachloran, chloride and others). Poorly soluble chemically inert chemicals (mercury, arsenic, lead, hexachloran and others) slowly eliminated from the body and long linger in the tissues organismele pesticides able to cumulation (mercury and organochlorine drugs, arsenic compounds and others). Most pesticides can cause chronic poisoning (arsenic compounds, alkaloids, and other). There are sex and age differences in sensitivity to pesticides.
    Organochlorine pesticides poorly soluble in water, well, in most organic liquids and solvents. Enter the body of a person orally or through the respiratory tract, as well as through intact skin. Meet chronic poisoning, especially in the consumption of fruit and vegetables, processed previously these funds. Stand out from the body mainly with faeces, partly from urine.
    Organochlorine pesticides (HCH, chloride, Aldin, heptachlor and others) are parenchymatous poisons and affect the Central nervous system, liver, kidneys, the heart, the mucous membranes of stomach and intestines, adrenal gland, testes, thyroid gland. The degree of morphological changes (from minor disorders of blood circulation and reversible dystrophic changes to necrosis foci) depends on the dose, concentration of the drug and other conditions. In the CNS mark degenerate and non-kralicesi changes of nerve cells. In the development of morphological changes of great importance anoxic conditions, the decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase, reduction and uneven distribution of RNA in the cell bodies.
    Upon receipt of toxic chemicals through the respiratory tract is celebrated irritation of mucous membranes of the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi can cause nosebleeds. When released into the gastrointestinal tract, pain in the sternum and in the epigastric region, nausea and vomiting. Then join signs of violations functions of the nervous system : weakness, headache, dizziness, insomnia, pain in the extremities, temperature rise, in severe cases, the toxic effects of encephalitis. Death may occur within a few hours. In sections and when microscopy note signs of disorders of blood circulation, extension, and a plethora of vessels, plasturgie, perivascular edema, focal hemorrhages, stasis.