Treatment of poisoning with poison snakes

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In the most ancient manuscripts of many countries, especially countries of East and Asia - Egypt, India, China, Greece, Iran, there are descriptions of the mass campaigns of" snakes, mention bites, often causing severe consequences and deaths, and about their treatment. Insufficient knowledge about the composition of the poison and the nature of his action on the organs and body systems led to unreasonable actions in first aid and use for the utterance of non-specific means. There are various recipes offered by Hippocrates, Celsus. Uncivilized tribes of South America, Africa and India, according to James (1971), and now have their own funds for treatment of snake bites. South African tribes used 14 groups (27 species) of plants, among them bindweed, burdock, pelagonia and other plants, mentioned by Celsus. Use different combinations of plants for removing the poison from the blood, provide anti-inflammatory and sedative action, the maintenance of cardiac activity, and so on; it was used in the form of bandages, plasters, broths. In Bantu tribe produce sections and using cans or mouth suck the poison. In India drink snake venom to produce to him immunity of the organism.
Listing noted above methods of treatment of snake bites, James indifferently stresses that the principles of treatment of bites at all times and all peoples are equal. Note, however, that the people resorted to the use of ancient method only when there is no modern effective methods of treatment. In India tribe OOBE (district of Dalaba) applies mush of a mixture of 3 herbs, and the inhabitants of the Pamirs after absorption with a mouth of blood from the site of the bite put on this place the grass (N. 3. Monakov, 1953). A number of formulations, including a powder of the dried plants or decoction of herbs, recommend Yu Sheng, pan ran (1958). Chinese and Malay folk medicine and now uses a water extract from leaves and stems Clinachantus hutans, etc. No need to dwell on other very primitive means. Unfortunately, now in medical practice have resorted to burning the site of the bite of a hot subject: match, boiling oil, gunpowder or acetic acid, chrome, carbolic acids and solutions of caustic soda, potash and other Use of these substances not only vain, but purely harmful, as it causes necrosis of tissues, often exacerbating the disease development shock due to increased content in the blood of histamine and other biologically active substances (M. N. Sultanov, 1958, 1963; Hentsch, 1963, and others). Painfully long painful condition of the victim result in disability or death.
It is popular belief, if a serpent by the bite will not turn on its side, the poison will not stand out and bite while not dangerous. However, in any position snake poison gets into the wound, plunging the teeth, she rushes forward, to be free, it is sufficient space for runoff (poison)which occurs by reflex reduce its temporal muscles.

M, 32 years, during 2 hours after being bitten by a snake had not applied for medical help, believing that if the snake is not turned by the bite on the side, that bite is not dangerous. However, with the development of symptoms of poisoning him began to grow swelling. The patient was taken to hospital. After complex therapy on the 4th day he was discharged in good condition.

The search for a rational method of first aid and effective treatment of bites were conducted mostly in those countries where the bite of snakes were real national disaster. So, in 1886 in India Freyer had 11416 cases of bites of serpents, and according to Taschenberg (1909), for 9 years from the bites suffered 173 511 persons; annually from stings of the snakes killed about 20,000 people, not to mention cases of disability and long painful conditions (A. E. Brehm, 1931).
Until recently, even in the same hospital have used different methods of treatment of snake bites. According to archival materials of Nakhichevan hospital, in 1946, on the site of the bite put a compress with lead solution; in 1947-1952 years - compress with a solution of potassium permanganate , along with subcutaneous and intramuscular its introduction; August 1953 introduced 0.25-0.5% solution novokaina and produced a long, deep cuts, and since September 1953 apply the specific therapeutic serum.