Pathogenesis and pathological anatomy of a poisoning with poison snakes

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Poisons snakes and other poisonous animals are biologically active compounds with a wide pharmacodynamic range, able to penetrate into the cells through their shell-membrane and cause the defeat of the most important integrating systems. It is characteristic that the minimum quantity of poison can cause significant toxicity in various organs and systems. The mechanism of action of snake venoms Y. X. Turakulov and A. N. Sakhibov (1970) distinguish the true impact of toxins, toxic substances formed as a result of a poisoning of the body; enzymes and chemicals, inhibiting the enzyme systems of the body. Emerging toxic effects due to total potentiating action of substances contained in poisons snakes. So, for example, separate fractions of Viper venom Russell low toxicity, and the complex cause severe toxic effects. It is characteristic that toxic fraction of poisons sand Echis and lebetina Viper has anticoagulant activity. Draws the attention of the high specificity of the venom of the investigated species of snakes (Master, 1965). Of the 4 factions of the poison Bun. multicinctus, I has cholinesterase activity II (alpha-bungarotoxin), entering into irreversible interaction with acetylcholine receptors and motor end plates, blocks neuromuscular transmission, III (b-bungarotoxin) and IV ('-bungarotoxin) faction inhibit the function of presinapticakih endings (Chang, Le, 1963). Neurotoxins poison Elapidae and sea snakes can be divided into post - and presynaptic. Postsynaptic neurotoxins cause antidepoliarizuth the blockade neuromuscular synapse with involvement of cholinergic receptors on the motor nerve. More toxic ' -fraction poison Tr. gramineus has Caseinates, severe haemorrhagic and anticoagulant activity (3-hemorrhagic fraction is almost devoid Caseinates and anticoagulant activity. High phospholipases activity have β-, V - and Delta-faction, which, releasing histamine, increases the permeability of capillaries. Less toxic L-faction, having a high trombinovogo and hydrolytic activity (for ethers arginine), causes local irritation eye rabbit and deprived Caseinates, hemorrhagic and anticoagulant activity (Ouyang, Shiau, 1970).
The variety of manifestations and severity of poisons due to various combinations of neurotoxic, hemorrhagic, shock, kapilliarotoxicos, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic and changing the clotting of blood fractions and species of poison dose of introduction, and so on (M. N. Sultanov, 1958, 1963, 1969, 1973; Y. X. Turakulov and A. N. Sakhibov, 1970; Master, 1965, and others).
Speaking about the importance of values neurotoxin variety of the poison, note that the study of the structure, activities, and phylogenetic relationships 15 neurotoxins and cardiotoxin poisons Naja, Haemachatus, Dendroaspis, Bungarus and Laticauda (Strydom, 1973) showed that the oldest buildings poisons was cardiophobia structure of which in the process of evolution formed two forms of neurotoxin.
Activity and participation of the neurotoxin poisons snakes of various families in the pathogenesis of intoxication varies. The poison of asps is under it the most toxic, poison crotalid is one of the most important toxic components, and the poison of vipers is relatively
little toxic. In many poisons contained two neurotoxin and more. Supreme leader of the faction of the poison Palestinian Viper allocated 2 W / W; 8 fractions of this snake venom contain neurotoxins K-1 and a-1, a-4, A-5; first two and have expressed anticoagulant property (Vries, Gitter, 1957).
Neurotoxins sea snakes that live in tropical and subtropical areas of the Indian and Pacific oceans, more toxic than the land. The toxicity depends on the availability of tryptophan molecule, but not the degree of binding of the antigen to antibody (Ti Anthony, 1974). From 7 protein fractions neurotoxin allocated chromatographic in the venom Enh. sichistosa, the most toxic was a neurotoxin, containing more than 70% soluble protein, with subsequent ion-exchange chromatography was identified 16 different neurotoxins, containing 14 and 25% soluble protein.