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Responsibility of medical workers

Resolution of the expert Commission raised a lot of questions. Typical are the following:
1) the timeliness and accuracy of diagnosis injuries or diseases;
2) the timeliness, correctness, completeness of medical assistance to injured or ill;
3) if under surgery: were there any indications (absolute or relative) for the operation; the timeliness, correctness of technical operation, postoperative management of patients;
4) what are the defects occurred in the diagnosis or the treatment of injury or disease, whom they were made, their causes, roles and the causal link with the coming of harmful consequences for the patient.
In addition to the above, the resolution of the expert Commission may be set and other issues arising from the peculiarities of the case.
In the conclusion of the expert Commission should be given the scientifically grounded and motivated responses to the front of her questions. If the answer to any question cannot be given, it is necessary to specify, for what reason. If all the experts agree, they sign a conclusion; if the opinions of experts disagree, disagree with the majority of the experts write a separate opinion.
The decision of questions about the intent or negligence, fault or innocence of health workers is not included in the competence of the experts, the court decide.
Adverse patient outcomes may be due to the severity of the illness or injury (as happens in most cases), and as a result of negative circumstances and sometimes the so-called medical error.
Under case (accident) in medical practice should be understood adverse outcome medical intervention, resulting from unfavorable conditions that were impossible to anticipate and warn if a conscientious attitude of medical workers to their duties. Examples include death or condition resulting intolerances of medicinal substance at his first introduction; the so-called anesthetic death from acute laryngeal stenosis or reflex cardiac arrest from unknown causes. The assessment of such cases is difficult not only for clinicians, but also for morphologists, pathologists, and forensic experts.
Sometimes the wrong diagnostic and therapeutic activities are not illegal nature, but are the result of medical errors. In legal literature is no such notion. Under medical error in medicine understand honest mistake doctor in his judgments and actions, if not admitted elements of negligence (carelessness, arrogance or medical ignorance.
There are error diagnostic, error in the designation and implementation of treatment (treatment-and-tactical and medical-technical), errors in medical aid organization. The causes of medical errors can be objective, i.e., not dependent on the doctor, and subjective. The objective can be attributed to the lack of perfection of medical knowledge about the origin and diagnosis of diseases, lack of time for examination of the patient, his unconscious state, atypical disease, a patient several diseases simultaneously, which distorts the typical clinical picture with them. Subjective causes of medical errors lie in the lack of experience, especially in young doctors.
In some cases of medical errors, which entailed serious consequences, there are complaints incorrect or late diagnosis and treatment of the patient, which is the basis for excitation of criminal case. This is because often it is very difficult to differentiate medical error from offences. A significant role in such differentiation belongs forensic medical examination.
The final decision about whether there was in this particular case, the offence belongs to competent investigative authorities.
For medical error, when it is established that the doctor faithfully fulfilled their duties, and the reasons for its bona fide errors were listed objective or subjective circumstances, the doctor will not bear criminal or disciplinary liability. The case of medical errors are subject to the detailed analysis on clinical-anatomical conferences, during which establish their causes and the specific conditions in which they arose, and develop measures to prevent further.

1. Define the terms "offence" and "offence".
2. What are the types of misconduct.
3. What kinds of medical professional crimes.
4. Give a description of official crimes.
5. What are the organizational features of forensic medical examination in "medical business"?
6. Let the definition of "medical error".